The 'Id Festivals
Acording to Hadrat Anas, when the Holy Prophet migrated to Madinah, he found that the people of the town had set aside two days in the year for fun, sport and merry-making. The Holy Prophet told the Muslims of Madinah that Allah had appointed two better days for them in the year : the day of Id al-Adha.
Significance of Id al-Fitr
The Muslims celebrated Id al-Fitr on the first of the lunar month of Shawwal. The religious festival in fact is an expression of thanks-giving to Allah Almighty for His grace in enabling His faithful servants to observe the fasting month of Ramadan besides the daily Taravih Prayers, recitation of the Qur'an and works of charity.
Significance of Id al-Adha
Id-al-Adha is celebrated on the 10th of the lunar month of Zil-Hajj to commemorate the great sacrifies offered by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail (Allah's peace be upon them both) to please Allah.
When in a dream Prophet Ibrahim was asked to give away his dearest thing in the way of Allah, he took along his only son, Ismail, without the least hestitation and prepared to sacrifice him to win Allah. He submitted himself most willingly beneth the knife. By following and observing this unparalleled tradition of sacrifice practically, the Muslims indeed proclaim that they are ever ready to expend their wealth and properties in the way of Allah. By slaughtering the sacrificial animals they indeed pledge before Allah that just as they are shedding their blood for His sake, so they will also be prepared to lay down their own lives in His way, as and when required.
Prescribed Works on Id al-Fitr
The following eleven things have been prescribed to be done on 'Id al-Fitr :
1. The rise
early in the morning.
All those things which are prescribed for 'Id al-Fitr have also been prescribed for 'Id al-Adha, with the following two exceptions :
Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar
Wa-allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar
Prescribed Works on Id al-Adha
All those things which are prescribed for Id al-Fitr have also been prescribed for Id al-Adha, with the following two exceptions :
1. One should
eat nothing before departure for the Id ground. According to Hadrat Buraidah,
the Holy Prophet would at something before going for the prayer
on Id al-Fitr, but he would eat only after the return from the 'Id
ground. According to some traditions he took sacrificial meat.
The Id Prayer
The 'Id Prayer consists of two rak'ahs (Wajib) and the prerequisites of its validity and essentiality are the same as of the Friday Prayer with the exception of the sermon which is Fard in case of the Friday Prayer but Sunnat in case of the Id al-Fitr of Id al-Adha, is the case be, along with six additional Takbirs.
The Prayer is observed in the usual manner along with six additional Takbirs, three after Thana in the first rakah, and three just before bending down for Ruku in the second rak'ah.
In the first rakah, after the recitation of Thana, the Imam raises his hands thrice to the ears with Takbir dropping them each time to the sides, and the whole congregation does the same after him. Hands are placed under the navel after the third Takbir dropping them each time to the sides, and the whole congregation does the same after him. Hands are placed under the navel after the third Takbir and the Imam begins the recitation of Al-Fatihah followed by passage, and completes the first rak''ah the remaining three Takbirs are called out after the recitation of Al-Fatihah and the additional passage before bending down in Ruku, and the prayer is completed in the usual way.
The time for the Id Prayers starts when the sun has risen and brightened up sufficiently and lasts till it begins to decline. As far as possible, the prayer should not be delayed ; the Adha Prayer should be offered a little earlier than the Fitr Prayer
Regulations Relating to Id Prayer
1. If a person
misses the Id Prayer, he cannot offer it individually, for the Prayer is
conditioned upon congregation. Similarly, if the prayer of a person
who joined in the congregation. Is invalidated due to some reason, he cannot
offer it later as a missed prayer, nor is it incumbent upon him to do so.
However, a few persons who have missed the prayer can get together and
offer it if they so desire.
Regulations Concerning the Id Sermon
1. The 'Id Sermon is Sunnat in nature, but listening to it is Wajib. (Obligatory) for the audience.
2. The Sermon should be delivered after the prayer. Hadrat Abu Sa'id says ; The Holy prophet would first of all offer the Fitr or Adha Prayer ; then he would stand up facing the people who kept on sitting in their rows and he would instruct them in religion. Then if he had to send out an army or had to give a special command to the people, he would do so. After this he would return home. (Bukhari, Muslim)
3. It is prescribed to deliver two sermons after the Id Prayer and observe a pause between them just like the pause between the Friday sermons.
4. The prescribed Takbir has to be pronounced in the 'Id Sermons, nine times in the first Sermon and seven times in the second.
5. The Imam should draw the people
1. Arafah, 10th of Zul-Hijja as the Day of Sacrifice, and 11th to 13th as the days of Tashriq. During these five days the following Takbir, has to be pronounced aloud soon after the Fard daily prayers [ARABIC TEXT] Allah is Greatest, Allah is Greatest! Allah is Greatest, Allah is Greatest!
2. Takbir Tashriq is begun from the Fajr Prayer on the Day of Arafah and is repeated after every Fard Prayer till the Asr Prayer on the 13th of Zul-Hijja.
3. The males must pronounce Takbir Tashriq in a loud voice : the females however, should pronounce it in a low voice.
4. It is not obligatory for the women and travellers to pronounce Takbir Tashriq, unless, however, they are offering prayers behind an Imam who has to pronounce it ; in this case they will have to pronounce it, too.
5. Takbir Tashriq has to be pronounced immediately after the Fard Prayer. If a person does something irreverent to the prayer, e.g., Breaks into laughter, engages in conversation, or leaves the mosque, he should not pronounce the Takbir. However, if his Wudu breaks, he may still pronounce it, or pronounce it after performing a fresh Wudu.
6. If the Imam forgets
to pronounce Takbir Tashriq, the followers should start pronouncing
it instead of waiting for the Imam to do so.
1 9th of Zul-Hijja is known as the Day of Arafah, 10th of Zul-Hijja as the Day of Sacrifice, and 11th to 13th as the days of Tashriq. During these five days the following Takbir, has to be pronounced aloud soon after the Fard daily prayers :
Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar La Ilaha ill-Allah
Allah is Greatest, Allah is Greatest!
The Ahl al-Hadith scholars maintain the view that women and children have been enjoined to attend the Id Prayer, because the Id like the Friday Prayer, is a special feature of Islam, and the Holy Prophet himself has exhorted the women to go to the 'Id ground, Hadrat Umm Atiyyah has narrated :
The Holy Prophet commanded us that we should take unmarried young girls and grown-up- women, even the menstruating ones, along with us to the Id ground. The menstruating women, however, are not to attend the Prayer, but should sit aside and keep on pronouncing the Takbir, and join only in th Supplications. I asked, "O Prophet of Allah ! What about those who do not have the over-garment to cover themselves up . The Holy Prophet replied : 'The one having an over-garment should take her sister along with her' ". (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi)
Hadrat Ibn 'Abbas says : I accompanied the Holy Prophet to the 'Id ground. He led the prayer and then gave the sermon. Then he approached the gathering of the women and gave them religious instructions and urged them to practise charity. (Bukhari)
According to Hadrat Abdullah bin 'Abbas, the Holy Prophet went for the Fitr Prayer and offered only two rakahs and no other prayer before or after. (Tirmidhi)
The Ahl al-Hadith scholars, however, maintain that if a person has missed the congregational 'Id Prayer, he may offer two rakahs individually. (Islami Talim, Vol. IV)