(From The Elementary
Teachings of Islam by His Exalted Eminence Maulana Mohammed Ahdul Aleem
'Id (The 'Id Prayers).
Q. Of how many rak'ats
do the 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'ld-ul-Adha prayers consist?
A. Each one of them
consists of two rak'ats.
Q. How are those two
A. They are offered
in the congregation thus:
(1) The Imam as
usual stands in front of the congregation, and facing the direction of
the Ka'ba and having the intention of offering the particular prayers says
aloud: "Allahu Akbar," and the congregation follows his lead.
(2) Then the Imam and the
congregation place their hands below the navel as usual, and at short intervals
perform three "takbeers", i.e., say "Allahu Akbar," raising
the hands to the ears and letting them remain at the sides at the end of
each "takbeer." After the end of third "takbeer," the hands
are placed below the navel, and the Imam recites Subhanak Allahumma,
etc.," inaudibly, followed by the audible recitation of Suratul-Fatiha
Opening Chapter) and some other chapter or passage from the Holy Qur'an
and finishes the rak'at in the prescribed manner.
(3) In the second rak'at,
the order is reversed, for the recitation of Quranic passages are made
first and then the Imam and the congregation perform the three "takbeers"
as in the first one, and then saying "Allahu Akbar" for the fourth
time, bow down in the ruku' and complete the prayer as usual.
(4) After the prayer is over,
the Imam mounts the pulpit and delivers two Khutbas or sermons.
At the time of 'Id-ul-Fitr, the Imam. explains the commandments
regarding the payment or distribution of
Sadaqat-ul-fitr and on
the occasion of 'ld-ul-Adha, the commandments about the sacrifice
What are the daily Sunnatu-ghair-il-mu'akkadah
A. They are:
(1) Four rak'ats
the fard of Salatul-'Asr
(2) Four rak'ats before
the fard of Salatul-Isha'.
Q. What are the various
special optional (Nafl) prayers?
A. They are:
which consists of two or four rak'ats and may be offered after sunrise.
which coasists of two to eight rak'ats and may be offered any time
Salat-ul-lshraq till the Sun's declination.
which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered on entering a mosque.
which consists of four to twelve rak'ats and may be offered after
midnight preferably after having slept for some time. This prayer has been
specially recommended in the Holy Qur'an for attaining spiritual progress.
which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered during the eclipse
of the sun or the moon.
which consists of twenty rak'ats and is offered in ten salams of
each, each night in the month of Ramadan only after
the obligatory 'Isha prayers. It is very commendable to complete
the whole Qur'an by reciting consecutive portions of it in each of its
the recitation of the Surat- ul-Fatiha, and thus finish the whole
Qur'an by the end of the month of Ramadan.
Q. In which rak'ats
of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made audible?
A. The recitation
of Surat-ul-Fatiha and some other chapter or passage of the Holy
Qur'an is made audible in:
(1) The two rak'atsof
the Fard of Salatud-Fajr.
Q. In what rak'ats
and what prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made inaudible?
(2) The first two rak'ats
of the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib.
(3) The first two rak'ats
the Fard of Salatul-'lsha'.
(4) The two rak'ats of SalatuI-Jumu'a.
(5) The two rak'ats of
both 'Id prayers.
(6) In all the twenty rak'ats
the optional Taraveeh prayers in the month of Ramadan.
(7) In the three rak'ats
of the Wajib-ul-Witr prayers in the month of Ramadan only.
A. In all the
rak'ats of the Fard of Salatul-Zuhr and Salat-ul-Asr and
the last one and two rak'ats respectively of the SalatuI-Maghrib
and the Salatul-'lsha'. The Fatiha alone is recited in these
and also in the last two rak'ats of Salatul-Zuhr and SalatuI-'Asr.
Q. What Prayers should
be offered in congregation?
A. The Prayers that
should be offered in congregation are:
(1) All Fards
of the five obligatory prayers.
(2) The Fard of Salatul-Jumu'a.
(3) Both the 'Id Pravers.
(5) Wajib-ul-Witr in
the month of Ramadan only.
(6) Funeral Prayer.
Q. Can you give the definition
A. Yes. Zakat
is the amount in kind or coin which a Muslim of means must distribute among
the deserving every year.
Q. On whom is Zakat
A. Zakat is
obligatory on all Muslims who have in their possession for one complete
year gold of the minimum weight of seven and a half tolas or silver of
the minimum weight of fifty-two and a half tolas (a tola is equivalent
in weight to an Pakistani rupee).
Q. What is the annual
rate of Zakat on gold or silver?
A. The annual rate
Q. Is Zakat obligatory
on gold and silver only?
A. No. It is obligatory
not only on gold or silver but also on camels, cattle, goats and all articles
Q. Is Zakat obligatory
on pearls and precious stones?
A. They are exempted
when used as ornaments for personal use, but are liable to Zakat
as articles of trade.
Q. How should Zakat
be calculated on articles of trade?
A. It should be calculated
on the net balance of the value of the articles of trade at the end of
Q. Among what classes
of Muslims and for what purposes is the Zakat to be distributed
A. It is distributed
among the following classes of Muslims for relieving respective wants:
(1) The poor Muslims,
to relieve distress.
(2) The needy Muslims to
supply the implements for earning their livelihood, and those whose hearts
are inclined to embrace Islam, i.e., the converts to Islam, the new Muslims
to enable them to settle down and meet their sudden needs.
(3) The Muslims in debt,
to free them from their liabilities incurred under pressing necessities.
(4) The Muslim wayfarers.
If any one of them be found to be stranded in a land foreign or strange
to him and stands in need of help.
(5) Muslim prisoners of
war, for liberating them by payment of ransom money.
(6) Muslim employees appointed
by a Muslim ' Amir for the collection of Zakat, for the payment
of their wages.
(7) Those engaged in the
way of Allah, to defray the expenses for the defence and propagation of
Q. What conditions must
be complied with for the fulfilment of the obligation of Zakat?
A. Zakat must
be distributed among the classes of Muslims for the purposes enumerated
with the Niyyat of fulfilling the obligation of Zakat and
to see to it that the recipient is made the absolute owner in his or her
sole right of what is given to him or her.
Q. What moral does Zakat
convey to you?
A. The moral that
this institution conveys to me is that I must not be selfish and get too
fond of worldly possessions, but must always be ready and willing to help
my brethren by all means at my disposal.
1. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr?
A. It is a charity,
the annual distribution of which is essential (Wajib) for every
Muslim who possesses on the last day of the month of Ramadan or the day
of 'ld-ul-Fitr goods of the value which makes them liable for
A Muslim has to pay the Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for himself or herself and
for his or her minor children.
Q. What is the amount
A. One hundred and
seventy-five and a half tolas of wheat or its equivalent value per head
Is the minimum amount that a Muslim is enjoined to pay.
Q. To whom should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr
A. Those who merit
also deserve It.
Q. When should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr
A. It should preferably
be distributed before offering the 'ld-ul-Fitr Prayers, otherwise
at any other time.
Q. Who are not entitled
to receive Zakat or Sadaqat-ul-Fitr?
A. They are:
(1) Those on whom
payment of Zakat is obligatory.
Note: The descendants
of the Holy Prophet may accept or be given presents or simple charity,
but not Zakat or Sadaqat-ul-Fitr.
(2) The descendants of the
Holy Prophet, however poor they may be.
Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan
Q. What do you mean by
observation of fasts?
A. By observation
of fasts I mean the act of abstaining from eating, drinking, smoking, allowing
anything whatsoever to enter into what is understood to be the interior
of the body, as also voluntary vomiting, self-pollution, sexual intercourse,
etc., from the break of dawn till sunset.
Q. On whom is the observation
of fasts obligatory?
A. The observation
of fasts is obligatory on all Muslims excepting the infants, the insane,
Q. Who is exempted from
A. Men and women
too old and feeble to bear the hardships of a fast are exempted, but they
should feed a poor and needy Muslim to satiation twice a day, or pay the
amount of one Sadaqa-tu-Fitr for every day.
Q. Under what circumstances
can one defer the observation of fasts?
A. One can defer
the observation of fasts if:
(1) One is so sick
that the observation of fast is likely to increase his or her sickness.
Note: As soon as one
is relieved of the respective disability, one must observe the fasts immediately.
(2) A woman who is suckling
a child, and there is a danger of reduction in the supply of milk if she
(3) A traveller who has
reason to fear that observing of fasts will make him. or her unable to
proceed on the journey.
Q. Under what circumstances
should a woman postpone the observation of fasts?
A. A woman should
postpone the observation of fasts during the period of menses and when
she is in the family way.
Q. Why is the observation
of fasts obligatory daring the month of Ramadan?
A. The observation
of fasts is obligatory in the month of Ramadan because it is the blessed
month of the year during which Holy Qur'an was revealed.
Q. Can we spread out
the period of fasting and complete the observation of fasts tor the required
number of days -- 29 or 30, as the case may be -- at any time during the
A. No. The Holy Qur'an
enjoins upon Muslims to observe the fasts consecutively for 29 or 30 days,
as the case may be, during the month of Ramadan alone. Besides, the main
purpose for which the observation of fasts has been made obligatory will
not be served if the period were spread out, for the training that one
receives for bearing with thirst and hunger, and incidentally realising
the distress of the starving poor and sympathizing with and helping them
would not be acquired.
Q. What is the real significance
A. The real significance
of fasting consists In the habit of self-control that it fosters and develops
and thus enables one to save oneself from being an easy victim to temptation,
and consequently minimising the chances of committing sins. This in its
turn will make the practice of virtue easier and lead one nearer to the
Kingdom of Allah.
Q. What should be done
if one does not observe a fast without any cogent reason on any day during
the month of Ramadan?
A. If one does not
fast on any day during month of Ramadan without any cogent reason, one
will be committing a sin, but all the same he or she must fast on some
other day to make amends for the omission.
Q. What are the main
obligatory factors for the proper observation of fasts?
A. The main obligatory
factors for the proper observation of fasts are:
(1) Conception or
utterance of Niyyat, i.e., intention to fast.
(2) Abstinence from all
things that would nullify the fast from the break of dawn to sunset.
Q. What is the usual
form of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan?
A. The usual form
of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan is:
Nawaitu sauma ghadin 'an
ada'i fardi Ramadana hazihis-sanati lillahl ta'ala.
I intend to fast for this
day in order to perform my duty towards Allah in the month of Ramadan of
the present year.
Q. When should one conceive
the Niyyat or give utterance to it?
A. The Niyyat,
(i.e., the intention) should be conceived or given utterance to for each
day preferably before the break of dawn, if not, at any time before midday,
if in the meanwhile one has maintained the state of fasting from the time
Q. What are the main
for the observation of fast?
A. The main optionals
for the observation of fasts are:
(1) Partaking of
meals before the break of dawn.
(2) Eating of three dates
and drinking water after sunset, for signifying the end of the fast.
(3) And reciting, prior
breaking the fast, the du'a:
Allahumma laka sumtu wa'ala
'Oh Allah! for Thy sake have
I fasted, and (now) I break the fast with the food that comes from Thee'.
Q. What is the penalty
for doing anything withoutany cogent reason that makes a fast void?
A. The penalty for
doing anything that makes a fast void without any cogent reason is to observe
sixty consecutive fasts or feed sixty persons, besides observing the fast
in place of one which he or she has deliberately made void.
Q. Is the fast made void
if by mistake if one does something that makes it so under the impression
that one is not observing a fast?
A. No, if anyone
by mistake does something that makes a fast void under the impression that
one is not observing a fast, the fast is not nullified, provided one stops
doing it the moment one recollects the same.
Q. On Whom is the performance
of Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) incumbent?
A. The performance
of Hajj is incumbent on all Muslims, at least once in a lifetime, if circumstances
permit, i.e., if they are in a position both physically and materially
to undertake the journey to Mecca, and make sufficient provision for their
dependents during the period of their absence.
Q. How do you define
A. The Pilgrimage
to Mecca in the state of lhram to be adopted at the Miqat
strictly carrying out all that it imposes, observing wuqoof at 'Arafat,
performing the tawaf at Ka'ba, etc., in accordance with the prescribed
laws is called Hajj.
Q. What is 'Umra?
A. The visit to Mecca
at any time of the year in the state of Ihram to be adopted at Miqat,
tawaf round Ka'ba in Mecca and accomplishing sa'ee
in accordance with the prescribed laws is called 'Umra.
Q. What do you mean by
A. The removal of
sewn clothes from the body and wrapping it up in a couple of seamless sheets
at the Miqat with the intention of performing Hajj or 'Umra,
and abstaining from all things that are unlawful for those intending to
perform Hajj or 'Umra signifies lhram.
Q. What do you understand
A. The performance
of seven circuits round the Ka'ba (In Mecca) commencing from the Black
Stone and having the Ka'ba on one's left is called Tawaf.
Q. What does the term
A. Sa'ee signifies
the act of marching to and from between the two hills of Safa and Marwa
(near Ka'ba) in accordance with the prescribed laws.
Q. What is Wuqoof?
A. The stay at 'Arafat,
at least for a few minutes, during the time between the declining of he
sun from the meridian on the 9th of Zilhijja (the 12th lunar month)
and before the dawn of the 10th Zilhijja is called Wuqoof.
Q. What territory does
A. The City of Mecca,
in which the Ka'ba is situated along with a certain defined outlying territory
on all its sides, is called Haram.
Q. What are Miqats?
A. The boundary lines
which the pilgrims or those who want to perform 'Umra should not
cross without adopting the lhram are called Miqats.
Q. How many Miqats
are there? What are their names and for whom do they indicate the boundary
line of Haram?
A. There are five
in all -
Bi'r 'Ali, which indicates the borderline of Haram for those coming
from the side of Medina.
serves as Miqat for those coming from the side of Iraq or Mesopotamia.
(3) Jahfa orRabigh
is the Miqat for those from Syria.
for those from the side of Nedjd.
(5) Yalamlam for
those from the direction of Yemen, Pakistan, India, etc.
Q. How shoold a male
pilgrim adopt the lhram?
A. When a male pilgrim
is about to cross a Miqat, he should perform Ghusl, divest
himself of sewn clothes, and wrap up the lower portion of his body in a
seamless sheet and cover up the upper part with another one, keeping the
head and face bare. The footgear must be such as to keep the central bones
of the outer parts of his feet open. He must then offer two Rak'ats
of Nafl, and lastly, he must form in his mind the Niyyat
and give utterance to his intention as to the purpose of his adopting the
Q. What is the form of
A. The form of Niyyat
the Hajj is:
Allahumma inni uri-dulhajja
fayyassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minnl, aawaltul-hajja wa ah-ramtu bihi mukhlisan
O Allah! I Intend
to perform the Hajj. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it
from me. I have conceived the Niyyat for Hajj and I have
adopted the Ihram sincerely for Allah, the Sublime.
Q. What is the form of
A. If one wants to
perform only 'Umra he or she should say:
uridul 'Urnrata fayassirha li wa taqabbalha minni, nawaitul-'Umrata wa
ahramtu biha muhhlisan lillahi ta'ala
O Allah! I intend
to perform 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from
me. I have conceived the 'intention' for 'Umra and have adopted
the lhram for it, sincerely for the sake of Allah, the Sublime.'
Q. What is the form of
performing Haij and 'Umra together?
A. It is:
uridulhajja wal 'Urnrata fayassirhuma li wa taqabbalhuma minni, nawaitul
Hajja wal 'Umrata- wa ahramtu bihima mukhlisan lillahi ta'ala.
O Allah! I intend
to perform both Hajj and 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for
me and accept them from me. I have conceived the intention for both
Hajj and 'Umra and have adopted the lhram to perform
both Hajj and 'Umra only for the sahe of Allah, the Sublime.'
Q. What should one do
after one has given utterance to one of the appropriate Niyyats?
A. After one has
given utterance to one of the Niyyats, one should say aloud (these
words and should have perfectly committed to memory as one will have to
recite them again and again, sitting, standing, mounting and dismounting):
labbaik; labbaika la sharika. laka labbaik; innal-hamda wan ni'mata laka
wal mulka la sharika lak.
Here I am at Thy service. O
Allah! Here I am at Thy service; Here I am at Thy service; There is no
partner unto Thee; Here I am at Thy service; To Thee the glory, the riches
and the sovereignty of the world. There is no partner to Thee.
Q. What things become
unlawful for those adopting the lhram?
A. The things that
become unlawful for those adopting the lhram and remain as such
till the object for which the lhram has been adopted is accomplished
(1) Hunting or aiding
and abetting it.
(2) Sexual intercourse or
(3) Cropping or shaving
of hair or paring of nails.
(4) Covering of head or
face in any way whatsoever.
(5) Use of gloves or socks.
(6) Wearing of any kinds
of sewn clothes or underwear.
(7) Using any perfume or
(8) Deliberate smelling
of perfume or applying it to any part of the body or the sheets covering
it, or even keeping it in any manner on one's person. (If any aroma of
perfumes applied before the conception of Niyyat remains, it does
not matter, for it is permissible).
(9) Killing or even dislodging
and throwing away lice if they happen to find their way on one's person
or the sheets covering it.
Q. What is the difference
between the adoption of Ihram by men and women?
A. The points of
difference between the adoption of lhram by men and women are:
(1) That a woman
can wear sewn clothes.
Note: A woman should
not utter "labbaik", etc., aloud but should say the same in a subdued
(2) She can cover her head
(as a matter of fact she should cover her head in the presence of all men
excepting her husband, as also whilst offering prayers).
(3) She should not put on
a veil in such a manner that the fabric may touch her face.
(4) She can put on socks
(5) All the other things
which are unlawful for a man are also unlawful for her.
Q. How is the Tawaf
A. The points to
be observed in the performance of Tawaf are:
(1) The performer of Tawaf
stand towards that corner of the Ka'ba where the black stone is
embedded in its wall in such a manner as to have it on one's right and
then give utterance to the Niyyat :
Allahumma inni uridu tawafa
baitikalmuharrami fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.
O Allah! I intend to perform
the tawaf of Thy consecrated premises. Make Thou the same easy for
me and accept it from me.
(2) Then facing the Black
Stone and raising the hands with palms outwards, one should say:
Bismillahi walhamdu lillahi
wallahu Akbar wassalatu was-salamu 'ala Rasoolilillah.
I begin in the name of Allah,
and all Praise is due to Allah and Allah is Most Great, and peace and blessings
be on Allah's Apostle.
(3) If possible one should
approach the Black Stone and give it a kiss, but if it be not feasible,
then one should give it a flying kiss, and recite the Du'a:
(a) Allahummaghfirli zunoobi
wa tahhir li qalbi wa ashrah li sadri wa yassir li amri wa 'afni fi man
O Allah! forgive me my sins
and purify my heart and expand my chest (i.e., give me spiritual illumination)
and make my task easy and preserve me among those Thou has preserved.
(b) Then one should proceed
towards the Gate of Ka'ba saying:
Allahumma imanam bika
wa tasdiqan bikitabika wa wafa'an bi 'ahdika wattiba'an li sunnati nabiyyika
Muhammadun, sallallahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallama, wa ashhadu an la ilaha
ill-Allahu wahda hu la sharika lahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammada 'abduhu wa
rasooluhu, amantu billahi wa kafartu bil-jibti wattaghoot.
O Allah! (I am performing
this) with complete faith in Thee and belief in the Truth of Thy book and
in the fulfilment of my pledge to Thee, and in the wake of the sunnat
of Thy Prophet Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
I bear witness to the fact that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad
is His Prophet. I have faith in Allah and do not believe in evil spirits
Note: The act of kissing
the Black Stone and reciting the du'a is called Istilam.
(4) Then, having the Ka'ba
on one's left, one should take a complete round of It remembering Allah
all the while or reciting du'a (a and b of 3) in the same
way as before. This completes one circuit.
Note: One may kiss,
if possible the South-West corner of Ka'ba which is called Rukn-i Yamani.
(5) One should perform seven
rounds in the manner described.
(6) After the completion
of seven rounds one should stand near the gate of Ka'ba and pray for Allah's
(7) Lastly, one should offer
two Rak'ats Of Sunnatut-tawaf, preferably near Maqam-i-
lbrahim, a spot just near the Ka'ba.
Q. What acts are culpable
during the performance of tawaf?
A. The acts that
are culpable during the performance of tawaf are:
(1) Being without
(2) Uncovering of more than
a quarter part of any limb of the body which must be kept covered.
(3) Performing the tawaf
by supporting oneself on someone's shoulder or mounted, without any cogent
(4) Performing the tawaf
in a sitting posture without any cogent reason.
(5) Performing the tawaf
the Ka'ba on one's right.
(6) Performing the tawaf
The Ka'ba exclusive of Hatim (Hatim is the name for the portion
of land in the North of Ka'ba which was left out when the Ka'ba was rebuilt).
(7) Performing a lesser
number of circuits than seven.
Q. What acts are not
permissible during the performance of Tawaf?
A. Such acts are:
(1) Discussion of
(2) The performance of Tawaf
in an Impure garb.
(3) The disregard of Ramal
signifies marching briskly, moving the shoulders with chest out, like the
gait of a soldier, in the first three circuits of the Tawaf
(4) The disregard of Iztiba'a,
which denotes the act of removing the sheet from the right shoulder and
passing it under the right armpit to place it on the left shoulder, thus
keeping bare the right arm in the Tawaf of 'Umra. (5) Omission
(6) Pauses between the circuits
of Tawaf (Of course, if the Wudu is made void or a congregation
of an obligatory prayer is ready, one may discontinue the circuits to perform
the Wudu or to join the congregation and complete them later on).
(7) The failure to offer
two Rak'ats of Nafl after the completion of each Tawaf.
i.e., seven circuits of the Ka'ba (however if the time be one that it is
not permissible to offer the prayers, one is allowed to defer the same
till the completion of the second Tawaf).
Q. How should the Sa'ee
A. In order to perform
the Sa'ee one should betake himself to Safa and after arriving there
(1) Abda'u bima bada'
Allahu bihi, innas-Safa wal Marwata min sha'a-'irillihi, faman hajj-al-baita
awi'tamara fala J'unaha 'alaihi anyyat-tawwafa bihima wa man tatawwa'a
khalran fa inn-Allah Shakirun 'Aleem.
I commence with that with
which Allah commenced. Surely Safa and Marwa are prominent symbols of Allah.
Hence there is no blame on one who performs the Hajj of the House (of God)
or 'Umra it he (or she) marches to and from between them (Safa and Marwa),
and one who does good of one's own accord, verily Allah is Responsive,
(2) Then, raising the hands
to the shoulders, one must say: (a) Allahu Akbar (thrice), and (b)
ilaha illallahu wallaha Akbar wa lillahilhamd.
(3) Then one should give
utterance to his or her Niyyat in the words: Allahumma inni uridus-Sa'ya
bainas-Safa wal Marwati fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.
O Allah! I intend to perform
the Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa; make Thou the same easy for me
and accept it from me'.
(4) Then one should march
towards Marwa, reciting Du'as all the way.
(5) When one reaches a green
spot, one should march quickly till one reaches another green spot, and
in between those spots one should recite the following Du'a:
Rabbighfir warham wa tajawaz
'amma ta'lam wa ta'lamu ma la na'lam innaka antal-A'azzul-Akram; Allahum-
maj''alhu hajjammabrooran, wa sa'yam-mashkooran, wa zam bammaghfoora.
O Allah! Forgive me and have
mercy upon me and pass off (my sins) of which Thou art aware, and Thou
knowest that of which we have no knowledge; verily Thou art the Most Honourable,
the Most Exalted. O Allah! make it (for me) a Hajj that is acceptable (to
Thee) and an effort that is granted and (a means of) forgiveness of sin!
(6) Arriving at Marwa one
should face the Ka'ba and pray for blessings (this completes one turn).
(7) Then one must go back
to Safa in the same manner, marching quickly between the two green spots,
reciting Du'as, etc., and when Safa is reached one must again face the
Ka'ba and pray for blessing (this will complete the second turn).
(8) One must make seven such
turns, and at the accomplishment of the seventh, when one arrives at Marwa
and offers up the prayer one is said to have accomplished the Sa'ee.
Performance of Hajj
Q. Can you describe the
performaace of Hajj?
A. Yes, in order
to perform Hajj:
(1) As soon as a
pilgrim approaches the boundary line of the Holy Land, Le., the Miqat,
he or she enters the state of Ihram with all its accompaniments.
(2) On reaching Mecca the
pilgrim goes to the Grand Mosque round the Ka'ba and then performs an optional
(3) On the 8th day of Zilhijja
pilgrim goes to Mina, before the time of Salatuz-Zuhr, a town three
miles from Mecca , and spends there the rest of the day and the whole night
of the 9th Zilhijja.
(4) After the early morning
prayer of the 9th Zilhijja, the pilgrim proceeds to 'Arafat, a place
about seven miles from Mecca, and stops anywhere in the Manqafs (staying
places) in the area surrounding the Jabal-i- Rahmat, (i.e., the Hill of
Mercy) in the remembrance of Allah.
(5) Just after the sunset
of the 9th Zilhijja the pilgrim leaves the Mauqaf without offering Salatul-Maghrib,
and proceeds to Muzdalifa, a place between Mina and 'Arafat, where he or
she offers Maghrib and 'Isha prayers.
(6) The pilgrim then proceeds
from Muzdalifa after the early morning prayers of the 10th of Zilhijja
at least 49 pebbles from there) and comes to Mina.
(7) The pilgrim then takes
up seven pebbles, and holding each between the index finger and the thumb
of the right hand, throws them one by one at the pillar called Jamratul-'Uqubah
on the same day, i.e., the 10th
(8) The pilgrim then, if
he or she can afford, makes a sacrifice of a goat or a sheep or joins six
others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull, and shaves off preferably
the whole head or at least a quarter head, or crop the hair equally all
over the head, if the pilgrim be male, and in the case of a female pilgrim,
she should cut off at least an inch of her hair.
(9) The pilgrim then leaves
off the state of lhram and proceeds to Mecca on the same day and
Tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-lfada, after which the
pilgrim offers two Rak'ats of Sunnat prayers.
(10) The pilgrim then accomplishes
(11) The pilgrim, then returns
to Mina and spends there the night of the 11th of Zilhijja.
(12) After the midday of
the 11th and the 12th of Zilhijja the pilgrim approaches in the
order mentioned, the pillars called Jamra- tul-Oola, Jamratul-Wusta
and throws seven pebbles against each of them, reciting at each throw:
"Bismillahi Allahu Akbar." If a pilgrim stays on the 13th of Zilhijja
well, he or she throws seven pebbles at the pillars as on the two previous
(13) The pilgrim then returns
to Mecca after the Salatuz-Zuhr on the 12th of Zilhijja.
Before leaving Mecca for one's own country, the pilgrim performs a departing
tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-Wida.
(1) During one's stay at
Mecca one may perform ,as many tawafs as one can, for the performance
of tawafs is the best form of worship during that period.
(2) One can also perform
many times as one likes by going out of Mecca to Tan'eem (a place about
three miles from Mecca) and adopting the lhram there, return to
Mecca and perform the tawaf and sa'ee as is usual for 'Umra.
Q. How does one perform
A. In order to perform
the 'Umra one should In the first instance:
(1) Adopt the lhram
at the Miqat in accordance with the prescribed laws.
Note: A woman is, however,
exempt both from lztiba'a and Ramal.
(2) After proceeding to Mecca
one should betake himself or herself to Ka'ba and affecting the lztiba'a,
one should form and give utterance to the Niyyat for Tawaf
and commence the performance of the same.
(3) One should take care
to perform the first three circuits in the style of Ramal.
(4) After the completion
of the three circuits, the remaining four are performed in the normal manner
and one should then offer two Rak'ats of Sunna-tut-Tawaf.
(5) One should then preferably
proceed to the well of Zamzam and drink a little water.
(6) From thence, betaking
oneself to Safa, one should accomplish the Sa'ee according to the
Note: The performance
of 'Umra is completed after the accomplishment of the Sa'ee.
Now if one wants to perform the Hajj in the very lhram, one
may maintain the same; but if one does not want to do so, one should shave
off at least a quarter or preferably the whole head or crop the hair all
over the head. The pilgrim is then free from all the impositions and restrictions
that the state of lhram imposes.
Q. Can Hajj and
'Umra be performed in the same state of lhram?
A. Yes, Hajj and
can be performed in the same state of Ihram, in which case the pilgrim
should not leave off the state of lhram after the performance of
'Umra till the completion of Hajj.
Q. What is Qiran?
A. When the Hajj
and 'Umra is performed in the same state of lhram, it is
Q. What is Tamattu'?
A. When the 'Umra
is performed in the month of Hajj and then lhram is removed
and re-donned on the 7th of Zilhijja at Mecca for the second time
for Hajj it is called Tamattu'.
Note: One who performs
Qiran or Tamatta' is bound to sacrifice a goat or sheep or join
six others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull, or observe ten fasts,
three before Hajj and seven after its performance.
Q. What is lfrad?
A. If one performs
alone and not 'Umra, it is called lfrad.
(1) The sacrifice of an animal
is not obligatory on one performing the Hajj alone, i.e., lfrad.
(2) If anyone of the essential
observances in connection with lhram, Tawaf or Sa'ee are
transgressed, one is liable for penalties in the shape of either sacrificing
a goat or a sheep, or distributing alms.
Q. What should a pilgrim
do after performing Hajj?
A. It is very commendable
for a pilgrim to pay a visit to the Mausoleum, of the Holy Prophet at Medina,
and standing there in a reverential posture facing the tomb of the Great
Prophet, to say:
Assalamu 'alaika ayyu-
han-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu, Assalamu 'alaika ya Rasoolallah!
Assalamu 'alaika ya Nabi-Allah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Habib Allah Assalamu
'alaika ya khaira-khalqillah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Shafi'-al-muznibeen!
Assa- lamu 'alaika wa 'ala alika wa as-habika wa ummatika ajma'een
Peace be on you, O Prophet
(of Allah)! and His mercy and His blessings. Peace be on you, 0 Apostle
of Allah! Peace be on you O Prophet of Allah! Peace be on you, O Beloved
of Allah! Peace be on you, O Best in the (whole) Creation of Allah! Peace
be on you, O Pleader for the sinners (before Allah)! Peace be on you and
your descendants and your companions and all your followers.
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