(From The Elementary Teachings of Islam by His Exalted Eminence Maulana Mohammed Ahdul Aleem Siddiqui)

Part I - Iman
Part II - Islam

Chapter 1 
The Declaration of Faith (about the Prophet Muhammad p.b.u..h.)

Chapter 2
1.Wudu (Ablution)
2. Ghusl (Bath)
3 (a) Miscellaneous Notes 
4. Azan 
4. (a) Iqamat 
5. The Obligatory and Essential Factors of Prayer 
6. Performance of Prayer
7. Classification of Prayers
8. Fard Prayers 
9. Wajib-ul-witr 
10. Funeral prayers (Salat-ul-janazah)
11. The Curtailment of Obligatory Prayers
12. Forbidden Times for Prayers 
13. Friday Prayers (Salatul-jummat'a)
14.Wajibul 'Id (The 'Id Prayers). 
15. Nafl Prayers
16. Miscellaneous 

Chapter 3
Zakat (Islamic Alms-Fee)

Chapter 4
The Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan

Chapter 5
Pilgrimage to Mecca 
How is the Tawaf performed?
The Performance of Hajj 
How does one perform 'Umra?

14.Wajibul 'Id (The 'Id Prayers).

Q. Of how many rak'ats do the 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'ld-ul-Adha prayers consist?
A. Each one of them consists of two rak'ats.

Q. How are those two rak'ats offered?
A. They are offered in the congregation thus:

(1) The Imam as usual stands in front of the congregation, and facing the direction of the Ka'ba and having the intention of offering the particular prayers says aloud: "Allahu Akbar," and the congregation follows his lead.

(2) Then the Imam and the congregation place their hands below the navel as usual, and at short intervals perform three "takbeers", i.e., say "Allahu Akbar," raising the hands to the ears and letting them remain at the sides at the end of each "takbeer." After the end of third "takbeer," the hands are placed below the navel, and the Imam recites Subhanak Allahumma, etc.," inaudibly, followed by the audible recitation of Suratul-Fatiha (the Opening Chapter) and some other chapter or passage from the Holy Qur'an and finishes the rak'at in the prescribed manner.

(3) In the second rak'at, the order is reversed, for the recitation of Quranic passages are made first and then the Imam and the congregation perform the three "takbeers" as in the first one, and then saying "Allahu Akbar" for the fourth time, bow down in the ruku' and complete the prayer as usual.

(4) After the prayer is over, the Imam mounts the pulpit and delivers two Khutbas or sermons. At the time of 'Id-ul-Fitr, the Imam. explains the commandments regarding the payment or distribution of Sadaqat-ul-fitr and on the occasion of 'ld-ul-Adha, the commandments about the sacrifice of animals.


What are the daily Sunnatu-ghair-il-mu'akkadah prayers?
A. They are:

(1) Four rak'ats before the fard of Salatul-'Asr
(2) Four rak'ats before the fard of Salatul-Isha'.

15.Nafl Prayers

Q. What are the various special optional (Nafl) prayers?
A. They are:

(1) Salat-ul-lshraq, which consists of two or four rak'ats and may be offered after sunrise.
(2) Salat-ud-Doha, which coasists of two to eight rak'ats and may be offered any time after the Salat-ul-lshraq till the Sun's declination.
(3) Salat-ul-Tahiyya-tul-Masjid, which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered on entering a mosque.
(4) Salat-ul-Tahajjud, which consists of four to twelve rak'ats and may be offered after midnight preferably after having slept for some time. This prayer has been specially recommended in the Holy Qur'an for attaining spiritual progress.
(5) SalatuI-Kusufain, which consists of two rak'ats and may be offered during the eclipse of the sun or the moon.
(6) Salat-ul-Taravih, which consists of twenty rak'ats and is offered in ten salams of two rak'ats each, each night in the month of Ramadan only after the obligatory 'Isha prayers. It is very commendable to complete the whole Qur'an by reciting consecutive portions of it in each of its rak'ats after the recitation of the Surat- ul-Fatiha, and thus finish the whole Qur'an by the end of the month of Ramadan.

16. Miscellaneous

Q. In which rak'ats of the prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made audible?
A. The recitation of Surat-ul-Fatiha and some other chapter or passage of the Holy Qur'an is made audible in:

(1) The two rak'atsof the Fard of Salatud-Fajr.
(2) The first two rak'ats of the Fard of Salatul-Maghrib.
(3) The first two rak'ats of the Fard of Salatul-'lsha'.
(4) The two rak'ats of SalatuI-Jumu'a.
(5) The two rak'ats of both 'Id prayers.
(6) In all the twenty rak'ats of the optional Taraveeh prayers in the month of Ramadan.
(7) In the three rak'ats of the Wajib-ul-Witr prayers in the month of Ramadan only.
Q. In what rak'ats and what prayers is the recitation of the Holy Qur'an made inaudible?
A. In all the rak'ats of the Fard of Salatul-Zuhr and Salat-ul-Asr and the last one and two rak'ats respectively of the SalatuI-Maghrib and the Salatul-'lsha'. The Fatiha alone is recited in these rak'ats and also in the last two rak'ats of Salatul-Zuhr and SalatuI-'Asr.

Q. What Prayers should be offered in congregation?
A. The Prayers that should be offered in congregation are:

(1) All Fards of the five obligatory prayers.
(2) The Fard of Salatul-Jumu'a.
(3) Both the 'Id Pravers.
(4) Salatut-Taraveeh
(5) Wajib-ul-Witr in the month of Ramadan only.
(6) Funeral Prayer.
(7) Salatul-Kausuf.


Zakat (Islamic Alms-Fee)

Q. Can you give the definition of Zakat?
A. Yes. Zakat is the amount in kind or coin which a Muslim of means must distribute among the deserving every year.

Q. On whom is Zakat obligatory?
A. Zakat is obligatory on all Muslims who have in their possession for one complete year gold of the minimum weight of seven and a half tolas or silver of the minimum weight of fifty-two and a half tolas (a tola is equivalent in weight to an Pakistani rupee).

Q. What is the annual rate of Zakat on gold or silver?
A. The annual rate is 2-1/2%.

Q. Is Zakat obligatory on gold and silver only?
A. No. It is obligatory not only on gold or silver but also on camels, cattle, goats and all articles of trade.

Q. Is Zakat obligatory on pearls and precious stones?
A. They are exempted when used as ornaments for personal use, but are liable to Zakat as articles of trade.

Q. How should Zakat be calculated on articles of trade?
A. It should be calculated on the net balance of the value of the articles of trade at the end of the year.

Q. Among what classes of Muslims and for what purposes is the Zakat to be distributed and utilised?
A. It is distributed among the following classes of Muslims for relieving respective wants:

(1) The poor Muslims, to relieve distress.
(2) The needy Muslims to supply the implements for earning their livelihood, and those whose hearts are inclined to embrace Islam, i.e., the converts to Islam, the new Muslims to enable them to settle down and meet their sudden needs.
(3) The Muslims in debt, to free them from their liabilities incurred under pressing necessities.
(4) The Muslim wayfarers. If any one of them be found to be stranded in a land foreign or strange to him and stands in need of help.
(5) Muslim prisoners of war, for liberating them by payment of ransom money.
(6) Muslim employees appointed by a Muslim ' Amir for the collection of Zakat, for the payment of their wages.
(7) Those engaged in the way of Allah, to defray the expenses for the defence and propagation of Islam.
Q. What conditions must be complied with for the fulfilment of the obligation of Zakat?
A. Zakat must be distributed among the classes of Muslims for the purposes enumerated with the Niyyat of fulfilling the obligation of Zakat and to see to it that the recipient is made the absolute owner in his or her sole right of what is given to him or her.

Q. What moral does Zakat convey to you?
A. The moral that this institution conveys to me is that I must not be selfish and get too fond of worldly possessions, but must always be ready and willing to help my brethren by all means at my disposal.


1. What is Sadaqat-ul-FItr?
A. It is a charity, the annual distribution of which is essential (Wajib) for every Muslim who possesses on the last day of the month of Ramadan or the day of 'ld-ul-Fitr goods of the value which makes them liable for Zakat. A Muslim has to pay the Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for himself or herself and for his or her minor children.

Q. What is the amount of Sadaqat-ul-Fitr?
A. One hundred and seventy-five and a half tolas of wheat or its equivalent value per head Is the minimum amount that a Muslim is enjoined to pay.

Q. To whom should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr to given?
A. Those who merit Zakat also deserve It.

Q. When should Sadaqat-ul-Fitr be distributed?
A. It should preferably be distributed before offering the 'ld-ul-Fitr Prayers, otherwise at any other time.

Q. Who are not entitled to receive Zakat or Sadaqat-ul-Fitr?
A. They are:

(1) Those on whom payment of Zakat is obligatory.
(2) The descendants of the Holy Prophet, however poor they may be.
Note: The descendants of the Holy Prophet may accept or be given presents or simple charity, but not Zakat or Sadaqat-ul-Fitr.


The Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan

Q. What do you mean by observation of fasts?
A. By observation of fasts I mean the act of abstaining from eating, drinking, smoking, allowing anything whatsoever to enter into what is understood to be the interior of the body, as also voluntary vomiting, self-pollution, sexual intercourse, etc., from the break of dawn till sunset.

Q. On whom is the observation of fasts obligatory?
A. The observation of fasts is obligatory on all Muslims excepting the infants, the insane, the invalids.

Q. Who is exempted from observing fasts?
A. Men and women too old and feeble to bear the hardships of a fast are exempted, but they should feed a poor and needy Muslim to satiation twice a day, or pay the amount of one Sadaqa-tu-Fitr for every day.

Q. Under what circumstances can one defer the observation of fasts?
A. One can defer the observation of fasts if:

(1) One is so sick that the observation of fast is likely to increase his or her sickness.
(2) A woman who is suckling a child, and there is a danger of reduction in the supply of milk if she observes fasts.
(3) A traveller who has reason to fear that observing of fasts will make him. or her unable to proceed on the journey.
Note: As soon as one is relieved of the respective disability, one must observe the fasts immediately.

Q. Under what circumstances should a woman postpone the observation of fasts?
A. A woman should postpone the observation of fasts during the period of menses and when she is in the family way.

Q. Why is the observation of fasts obligatory daring the month of Ramadan?
A. The observation of fasts is obligatory in the month of Ramadan because it is the blessed month of the year during which Holy Qur'an was revealed.

Q. Can we spread out the period of fasting and complete the observation of fasts tor the required number of days -- 29 or 30, as the case may be -- at any time during the year?
A. No. The Holy Qur'an enjoins upon Muslims to observe the fasts consecutively for 29 or 30 days, as the case may be, during the month of Ramadan alone. Besides, the main purpose for which the observation of fasts has been made obligatory will not be served if the period were spread out, for the training that one receives for bearing with thirst and hunger, and incidentally realising the distress of the starving poor and sympathizing with and helping them would not be acquired.

Q. What is the real significance of fasting?
A. The real significance of fasting consists In the habit of self-control that it fosters and develops and thus enables one to save oneself from being an easy victim to temptation, and consequently minimising the chances of committing sins. This in its turn will make the practice of virtue easier and lead one nearer to the Kingdom of Allah.

Q. What should be done if one does not observe a fast without any cogent reason on any day during the month of Ramadan?
A. If one does not fast on any day during month of Ramadan without any cogent reason, one will be committing a sin, but all the same he or she must fast on some other day to make amends for the omission.

Q. What are the main obligatory factors for the proper observation of fasts?
A. The main obligatory factors for the proper observation of fasts are:

(1) Conception or utterance of Niyyat, i.e., intention to fast.
(2) Abstinence from all things that would nullify the fast from the break of dawn to sunset.
Q. What is the usual form of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan?
A. The usual form of Niyyat for fasting during the month of Ramadan is:

Nawaitu sauma ghadin 'an ada'i fardi Ramadana hazihis-sanati lillahl ta'ala.

I intend to fast for this day in order to perform my duty towards Allah in the month of Ramadan of the present year.

Q. When should one conceive the Niyyat or give utterance to it?
A. The Niyyat, (i.e., the intention) should be conceived or given utterance to for each day preferably before the break of dawn, if not, at any time before midday, if in the meanwhile one has maintained the state of fasting from the time of dawn.

Q. What are the main optionals   for the observation of fast?
A. The main optionals for the observation of fasts are:

(1) Partaking of meals before the break of dawn.
(2) Eating of three dates and drinking water after sunset, for signifying the end of the fast.
(3) And reciting, prior breaking the fast, the du'a:

Allahumma laka sumtu wa'ala rizqika aftartu.

'Oh Allah! for Thy sake have I fasted, and (now) I break the fast with the food that comes from Thee'.

Q. What is the penalty for doing anything withoutany cogent reason that makes a fast void?
A. The penalty for doing anything that makes a fast void without any cogent reason is to observe sixty consecutive fasts or feed sixty persons, besides observing the fast in place of one which he or she has deliberately made void.

Q. Is the fast made void if by mistake if one does something that makes it so under the impression that one is not observing a fast?
A. No, if anyone by mistake does something that makes a fast void under the impression that one is not observing a fast, the fast is not nullified, provided one stops doing it the moment one recollects the same.


Pilgrimage to Mecca

Q. On Whom is the performance of Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) incumbent?
A. The performance of Hajj is incumbent on all Muslims, at least once in a lifetime, if circumstances permit, i.e., if they are in a position both physically and materially to undertake the journey to Mecca, and make sufficient provision for their dependents during the period of their absence.

Q. How do you define Hajj?
A. The Pilgrimage to Mecca in the state of lhram to be adopted at the Miqat strictly carrying out all that it imposes, observing wuqoof at 'Arafat, performing the tawaf at Ka'ba, etc., in accordance with the prescribed laws is called Hajj.

Q. What is 'Umra?
A. The visit to Mecca at any time of the year in the state of Ihram to be adopted at Miqat, performing the tawaf round Ka'ba in Mecca and accomplishing sa'ee in accordance with the prescribed laws is called 'Umra.

Q. What do you mean by lhram?
A. The removal of sewn clothes from the body and wrapping it up in a couple of seamless sheets at the Miqat with the intention of performing Hajj or 'Umra, and abstaining from all things that are unlawful for those intending to perform Hajj or 'Umra signifies lhram.

Q. What do you understand by Tawaf?
A. The performance of seven circuits round the Ka'ba (In Mecca) commencing from the Black Stone and having the Ka'ba on one's left is called Tawaf.

Q. What does the term Sa'ee signify?
A. Sa'ee signifies the act of marching to and from between the two hills of Safa and Marwa (near Ka'ba) in accordance with the prescribed laws.

Q. What is Wuqoof?
A. The stay at 'Arafat, at least for a few minutes, during the time between the declining of he sun from the meridian on the 9th of Zilhijja (the 12th lunar month) and before the dawn of the 10th Zilhijja is called Wuqoof.

Q. What territory does Haram constitute?
A. The City of Mecca, in which the Ka'ba is situated along with a certain defined outlying territory on all its sides, is called Haram.

Q. What are Miqats?
A. The boundary lines which the pilgrims or those who want to perform 'Umra should not cross without adopting the lhram are called Miqats.

Q. How many Miqats are there? What are their names and for whom do they indicate the boundary line of Haram?
A. There are five Miqats in all -

(1) Zul-Hulaifaor Bi'r 'Ali, which indicates the borderline of Haram for those coming from the side of Medina.
(2) Zat-al-lraq serves as Miqat for those coming from the side of Iraq or Mesopotamia.
(3) Jahfa orRabigh is the Miqat for those from Syria.
(4) Quarn for those from the side of Nedjd.
(5) Yalamlam for those from the direction of Yemen, Pakistan, India, etc.

Q. How shoold a male pilgrim adopt the lhram?
A. When a male pilgrim is about to cross a Miqat, he should perform Ghusl, divest himself of sewn clothes, and wrap up the lower portion of his body in a seamless sheet and cover up the upper part with another one, keeping the head and face bare. The footgear must be such as to keep the central bones of the outer parts of his feet open. He must then offer two Rak'ats of Nafl, and lastly, he must form in his mind the Niyyat and give utterance to his intention as to the purpose of his adopting the lhram.

Q. What is the form of Niyyat for Hajj?
A. The form of Niyyat for the Hajj is:

Allahumma inni uri-dulhajja fayyassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minnl, aawaltul-hajja wa ah-ramtu bihi mukhlisan lillahl ta'ala.
O Allah! I Intend to perform the Hajj. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me. I have conceived the Niyyat for Hajj and I have adopted the Ihram sincerely for Allah, the Sublime.
Q. What is the form of Niyyat for 'Umra?
A. If one wants to perform only 'Umra he or she should say:
Allahumma innl uridul 'Urnrata fayassirha li wa taqabbalha minni, nawaitul-'Umrata wa ahramtu biha muhhlisan lillahi ta'ala

O Allah! I intend to perform 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me. I have conceived the 'intention' for 'Umra and have adopted the lhram for it, sincerely for the sake of Allah, the Sublime.'

Q. What is the form of Niyyat for performing Haij and 'Umra together?
A. It is:

Allahumma inni uridulhajja wal 'Urnrata fayassirhuma li wa taqabbalhuma minni, nawaitul Hajja wal 'Umrata- wa ahramtu bihima mukhlisan lillahi ta'ala.
O Allah! I intend to perform both Hajj and 'Umra. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept them from me. I have conceived the intention for both Hajj and 'Umra and have adopted the lhram to perform both Hajj and 'Umra only for the sahe of Allah, the Sublime.'
Q. What should one do after one has given utterance to one of the appropriate Niyyats?
A. After one has given utterance to one of the Niyyats, one should say aloud (these words and should have perfectly committed to memory as one will have to recite them again and again, sitting, standing, mounting and dismounting):
Labbaik Allahumma labbaik; labbaika la sharika. laka labbaik; innal-hamda wan ni'mata laka wal mulka la sharika lak.
Here I am at Thy service. O Allah! Here I am at Thy service; Here I am at Thy service; There is no partner unto Thee; Here I am at Thy service; To Thee the glory, the riches and the sovereignty of the world. There is no partner to Thee.
Q. What things become unlawful for those adopting the lhram?
A. The things that become unlawful for those adopting the lhram and remain as such till the object for which the lhram has been adopted is accomplished are:
(1) Hunting or aiding and abetting it.
(2) Sexual intercourse or its preliminaries.
(3) Cropping or shaving of hair or paring of nails.
(4) Covering of head or face in any way whatsoever.
(5) Use of gloves or socks.
(6) Wearing of any kinds of sewn clothes or underwear.
(7) Using any perfume or perfumed preparation.
(8) Deliberate smelling of perfume or applying it to any part of the body or the sheets covering it, or even keeping it in any manner on one's person. (If any aroma of perfumes applied before the conception of Niyyat remains, it does not matter, for it is permissible).
(9) Killing or even dislodging and throwing away lice if they happen to find their way on one's person or the sheets covering it.
Q. What is the difference between the adoption of Ihram by men and women?
A. The points of difference between the adoption of lhram by men and women are:
(1) That a woman can wear sewn clothes.
(2) She can cover her head (as a matter of fact she should cover her head in the presence of all men excepting her husband, as also whilst offering prayers).
(3) She should not put on a veil in such a manner that the fabric may touch her face.
(4) She can put on socks or gloves.
(5) All the other things which are unlawful for a man are also unlawful for her.
Note: A woman should not utter "labbaik", etc., aloud but should say the same in a subdued voice.

Q. How is the Tawaf performed?
A. The points to be observed in the performance of Tawaf are:

(1) The performer of Tawaf should stand towards that corner of the Ka'ba where the black stone is embedded in its wall in such a manner as to have it on one's right and then give utterance to the Niyyat :

Allahumma inni uridu tawafa baitikalmuharrami fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.

O Allah! I intend to perform the tawaf of Thy consecrated premises. Make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me.

(2) Then facing the Black Stone and raising the hands with palms outwards, one should say:

Bismillahi walhamdu lillahi wallahu Akbar wassalatu was-salamu 'ala Rasoolilillah.


I begin in the name of Allah, and all Praise is due to Allah and Allah is Most Great, and peace and blessings be on Allah's Apostle.

(3) If possible one should approach the Black Stone and give it a kiss, but if it be not feasible, then one should give it a flying kiss, and recite the Du'a:

(a) Allahummaghfirli zunoobi wa tahhir li qalbi wa ashrah li sadri wa yassir li amri wa 'afni fi man 'afait.


O Allah! forgive me my sins and purify my heart and expand my chest (i.e., give me spiritual illumination) and make my task easy and preserve me among those Thou has preserved.

(b) Then one should proceed towards the Gate of Ka'ba saying:

Allahumma imanam bika wa tasdiqan bikitabika wa wafa'an bi 'ahdika wattiba'an li sunnati nabiyyika Muhammadun, sallallahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallama, wa ashhadu an la ilaha ill-Allahu wahda hu la sharika lahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammada 'abduhu wa rasooluhu, amantu billahi wa kafartu bil-jibti wattaghoot.

O Allah! (I am performing this) with complete faith in Thee and belief in the Truth of Thy book and in the fulfilment of my pledge to Thee, and in the wake of the sunnat of Thy Prophet Muhammad, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. I bear witness to the fact that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is His Prophet. I have faith in Allah and do not believe in evil spirits and ghosts.

Note: The act of kissing the Black Stone and reciting the du'a is called Istilam.

(4) Then, having the Ka'ba on one's left, one should take a complete round of It remembering Allah all the while or reciting du'a (a and b of 3) in the same way as before. This completes one circuit.

Note: One may kiss, if possible the South-West corner of Ka'ba which is called Rukn-i Yamani.

(5) One should perform seven rounds in the manner described.

(6) After the completion of seven rounds one should stand near the gate of Ka'ba and pray for Allah's blessings.

(7) Lastly, one should offer two Rak'ats Of Sunnatut-tawaf, preferably near Maqam-i- lbrahim, a spot just near the Ka'ba.

Q. What acts are culpable during the performance of tawaf?
A. The acts that are culpable during the performance of tawaf are:

(1) Being without ablution.
(2) Uncovering of more than a quarter part of any limb of the body which must be kept covered.
(3) Performing the tawaf either by supporting oneself on someone's shoulder or mounted, without any cogent reason.
(4) Performing the tawaf in a sitting posture without any cogent reason.
(5) Performing the tawaf with the Ka'ba on one's right.
(6) Performing the tawaf round The Ka'ba exclusive of Hatim (Hatim is the name for the portion of land in the North of Ka'ba which was left out when the Ka'ba was rebuilt).
(7) Performing a lesser number of circuits than seven.
Q. What acts are not permissible during the performance of Tawaf?
A. Such acts are:
(1) Discussion of mundane matters.
(2) The performance of Tawaf in an Impure garb.
(3) The disregard of Ramal which signifies marching briskly, moving the shoulders with chest out, like the gait of a soldier, in the first three circuits of the Tawaf of 'Umra.
(4) The disregard of Iztiba'a, which denotes the act of removing the sheet from the right shoulder and passing it under the right armpit to place it on the left shoulder, thus keeping bare the right arm in the Tawaf of 'Umra. (5) Omission of Istilam.
(6) Pauses between the circuits of Tawaf (Of course, if the Wudu is made void or a congregation of an obligatory prayer is ready, one may discontinue the circuits to perform the Wudu or to join the congregation and complete them later on).
(7) The failure to offer two Rak'ats of Nafl after the completion of each Tawaf. i.e., seven circuits of the Ka'ba (however if the time be one that it is not permissible to offer the prayers, one is allowed to defer the same till the completion of the second Tawaf).

Q. How should the Sa'ee be performed?
A. In order to perform the Sa'ee one should betake himself to Safa and after arriving there recite:

(1) Abda'u bima bada' Allahu bihi, innas-Safa wal Marwata min sha'a-'irillihi, faman hajj-al-baita awi'tamara fala J'unaha 'alaihi anyyat-tawwafa bihima wa man tatawwa'a khalran fa inn-Allah Shakirun 'Aleem.

I commence with that with which Allah commenced. Surely Safa and Marwa are prominent symbols of Allah. Hence there is no blame on one who performs the Hajj of the House (of God) or 'Umra it he (or she) marches to and from between them (Safa and Marwa), and one who does good of one's own accord, verily Allah is Responsive, Aware.

(2) Then, raising the hands to the shoulders, one must say: (a) Allahu Akbar (thrice), and (b) La ilaha illallahu wallaha Akbar wa lillahilhamd.

(3) Then one should give utterance to his or her Niyyat in the words: Allahumma inni uridus-Sa'ya bainas-Safa wal Marwati fayassirhu li wa taqabbalhu minni.

O Allah! I intend to perform the Sa'ee between Safa and Marwa; make Thou the same easy for me and accept it from me'.

(4) Then one should march towards Marwa, reciting Du'as all the way.

(5) When one reaches a green spot, one should march quickly till one reaches another green spot, and in between those spots one should recite the following Du'a:

Rabbighfir warham wa tajawaz 'amma ta'lam wa ta'lamu ma la na'lam innaka antal-A'azzul-Akram; Allahum- maj''alhu hajjammabrooran, wa sa'yam-mashkooran, wa zam bammaghfoora.

O Allah! Forgive me and have mercy upon me and pass off (my sins) of which Thou art aware, and Thou knowest that of which we have no knowledge; verily Thou art the Most Honourable, the Most Exalted. O Allah! make it (for me) a Hajj that is acceptable (to Thee) and an effort that is granted and (a means of) forgiveness of sin!

(6) Arriving at Marwa one should face the Ka'ba and pray for blessings (this completes one turn).

(7) Then one must go back to Safa in the same manner, marching quickly between the two green spots, reciting Du'as, etc., and when Safa is reached one must again face the Ka'ba and pray for blessing (this will complete the second turn).

(8) One must make seven such turns, and at the accomplishment of the seventh, when one arrives at Marwa and offers up the prayer one is said to have accomplished the Sa'ee.

The Performance of Hajj

Q. Can you describe the performaace of Hajj?
A. Yes, in order to perform Hajj:

(1) As soon as a pilgrim approaches the boundary line of the Holy Land, Le., the Miqat, he or she enters the state of Ihram with all its accompaniments.

(2) On reaching Mecca the pilgrim goes to the Grand Mosque round the Ka'ba and then performs an optional tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-Qadoom.

(3) On the 8th day of Zilhijja the pilgrim goes to Mina, before the time of Salatuz-Zuhr, a town three miles from Mecca , and spends there the rest of the day and the whole night of the 9th Zilhijja.

(4) After the early morning prayer of the 9th Zilhijja, the pilgrim proceeds to 'Arafat, a place about seven miles from Mecca, and stops anywhere in the Manqafs (staying places) in the area surrounding the Jabal-i- Rahmat, (i.e., the Hill of Mercy) in the remembrance of Allah.

(5) Just after the sunset of the 9th Zilhijja the pilgrim leaves the Mauqaf without offering Salatul-Maghrib, and proceeds to Muzdalifa, a place between Mina and 'Arafat, where he or she offers Maghrib and 'Isha prayers.

(6) The pilgrim then proceeds from Muzdalifa after the early morning prayers of the 10th of Zilhijja (picking at least 49 pebbles from there) and comes to Mina.

(7) The pilgrim then takes up seven pebbles, and holding each between the index finger and the thumb of the right hand, throws them one by one at the pillar called Jamratul-'Uqubah on the same day, i.e., the 10th Zilhijja.

(8) The pilgrim then, if he or she can afford, makes a sacrifice of a goat or a sheep or joins six others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull, and shaves off preferably the whole head or at least a quarter head, or crop the hair equally all over the head, if the pilgrim be male, and in the case of a female pilgrim, she should cut off at least an inch of her hair.

(9) The pilgrim then leaves off the state of lhram and proceeds to Mecca on the same day and performs the Tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-lfada, after which the pilgrim offers two Rak'ats of Sunnat prayers.

(10) The pilgrim then accomplishes the Sa'ee.

(11) The pilgrim, then returns to Mina and spends there the night of the 11th of Zilhijja.

(12) After the midday of the 11th and the 12th of Zilhijja the pilgrim approaches in the order mentioned, the pillars called Jamra- tul-Oola, Jamratul-Wusta and Jamratul-'Uqubah, and throws seven pebbles against each of them, reciting at each throw: "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar." If a pilgrim stays on the 13th of Zilhijja as well, he or she throws seven pebbles at the pillars as on the two previous days.

(13) The pilgrim then returns to Mecca after the Salatuz-Zuhr on the 12th of Zilhijja. Before leaving Mecca for one's own country, the pilgrim performs a departing tawaf, called Tawaf-ul-Wida.


(1) During one's stay at Mecca one may perform ,as many tawafs as one can, for the performance of tawafs is the best form of worship during that period.

(2) One can also perform 'Umra as many times as one likes by going out of Mecca to Tan'eem (a place about three miles from Mecca) and adopting the lhram there, return to Mecca and perform the tawaf and sa'ee as is usual for 'Umra.

Q. How does one perform 'Umra ?
A. In order to perform the 'Umra one should In the first instance:

(1) Adopt the lhram at the Miqat in accordance with the prescribed laws.

(2) After proceeding to Mecca one should betake himself or herself to Ka'ba and affecting the lztiba'a, one should form and give utterance to the Niyyat for Tawaf and commence the performance of the same.

(3) One should take care to perform the first three circuits in the style of Ramal.

Note: A woman is, however, exempt both from lztiba'a and Ramal.
(4) After the completion of the three circuits, the remaining four are performed in the normal manner and one should then offer two Rak'ats of Sunna-tut-Tawaf.

(5) One should then preferably proceed to the well of Zamzam and drink a little water.

(6) From thence, betaking oneself to Safa, one should accomplish the Sa'ee according to the prescribed laws.

Note: The performance of 'Umra is completed after the accomplishment of the Sa'ee. Now if one wants to perform the Hajj in the very lhram, one may maintain the same; but if one does not want to do so, one should shave off at least a quarter or preferably the whole head or crop the hair all over the head. The pilgrim is then free from all the impositions and restrictions that the state of lhram imposes.

Q. Can Hajj and 'Umra be performed in the same state of lhram?
A. Yes, Hajj and 'Umra can be performed in the same state of Ihram, in which case the pilgrim should not leave off the state of lhram after the performance of 'Umra till the completion of Hajj.

Q. What is Qiran?
A. When the Hajj and 'Umra is performed in the same state of lhram, it is called Qiran.

Q. What is Tamattu'?
A. When the 'Umra is performed in the month of Hajj and then lhram is removed and re-donned on the 7th of Zilhijja at Mecca for the second time for Hajj it is called Tamattu'.

Note: One who performs Qiran or Tamatta' is bound to sacrifice a goat or sheep or join six others in the sacrifice of a camel or a bull, or observe ten fasts, three before Hajj and seven after its performance.

Q. What is lfrad?
A. If one performs Hajj alone and not 'Umra, it is called lfrad.


(1) The sacrifice of an animal is not obligatory on one performing the Hajj alone, i.e., lfrad.

(2) If anyone of the essential observances in connection with lhram, Tawaf or Sa'ee are transgressed, one is liable for penalties in the shape of either sacrificing a goat or a sheep, or distributing alms.

Q. What should a pilgrim do after performing Hajj?
A. It is very commendable for a pilgrim to pay a visit to the Mausoleum, of the Holy Prophet at Medina, and standing there in a reverential posture facing the tomb of the Great Prophet, to say:

Assalamu 'alaika ayyu- han-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu, Assalamu 'alaika ya Rasoolallah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Nabi-Allah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Habib Allah Assalamu 'alaika ya khaira-khalqillah! Assalamu 'alaika ya Shafi'-al-muznibeen! Assa- lamu 'alaika wa 'ala alika wa as-habika wa ummatika ajma'een


Peace be on you, O Prophet (of Allah)! and His mercy and His blessings. Peace be on you, 0 Apostle of Allah! Peace be on you O Prophet of Allah! Peace be on you, O Beloved of Allah! Peace be on you, O Best in the (whole) Creation of Allah! Peace be on you, O Pleader for the sinners (before Allah)! Peace be on you and your descendants and your companions and all your followers.

The End