(From The Elementary Teachings of Islam by His Exalted Eminence Maulana Mohammed Ahdul Aleem Siddiqui)
Part I - Iman
Part II - Islam

Chapter 1 
The Declaration of Faith (about the Prophet Muhammad p.b.u..h.)

Chapter 2
1.Wudu (Ablution)
2. Ghusl (Bath)
3 (a) Miscellaneous Notes 
4. Azan 
4. (a) Iqamat 
5. The Obligatory and Essential Factors of Prayer 
6. Performance of Prayer
7. Classification of Prayers
8. Fard Prayers 
9. Wajib-ul-witr 
10. Funeral prayers (Salat-ul-janazah)
11. The Curtailment of Obligatory Prayers
12. Forbidden Times for Prayers 
13. Friday Prayers (Salatul-jummat'a)
14.Wajibul 'Id (The 'Id Prayers). 
15. Nafl Prayers
16. Miscellaneous 

Chapter 3
Zakat (Islamic Alms-Fee)

Chapter 4
The Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan

Chapter 5
Pilgrimage to Mecca 
How is the Tawaf performed?
The Performance of Hajj 
How does one perform 'Umra?

9. Wajib-ul-witr 

Q. When is Wajib-al-witr prayer to be offered?
A. It should be offered after the Sunnatul-mu'akkadah of Salatul-'Isha. 

Q. Of how many rak'ats does it consist? 
A. It consists of three rak'ats. 

Q. How does it differ from other prayers? 
A. It differs from other prayers in this respect, viz., that, in the third rak'at, before one bows down for the performance of ruku', one should say: "Allahu Akbar", raising the hands up to the ears and after placing them in the former position below the navel, one should recite the following du'a called Dn'aal Qunut

Allahumma inna nas-ta'eenuha wa nastagh-firuka wa nu'minu bika wa natawakkalu 'alaika wa nusni 'alaikal khaira wa nashkuruka wa la nakfuruka wa nakhia'u wa natruku manyyafjuruka; Allahumma iyyaka na'budu wa laka nusalli wa nasj'udu wa ilaika nas'aa wa nah-fidu wa narjoo rahmaataka, wa nakhsha azataka inna 'aza baka bil kuffari mulhiq. 

O Allah! we beseech Thy help and ask Thy pardon and believe in Thee and trust in Thee, and we praise Thee in the best manner and we thank Thee and we are not ungrateful to Thee, and we cast off and foresake one who disobeys Thee. O Allah! Thee alone do we serve and to Thee do we pray and make obeisance and to Thee do we flee and we are quick (in doing so), and we hope for Thy mercy and fear Thy chastisement; surely Thy chastisement overtakes the unbelievers'. 

10. Salat-ul-janazah (funeral prayers). 

Q. How is Salat-ul-janazah offered? 
A. Salat-ul-janazah is offered in the congregation as follows: 

(1) The body of the deceased is placed in a coffin with its face turned towards the Ka'ba and the Imam standing by its side with the intention (niyyat) of offering Salat-ul-janazah for that particular dead person raises both hands upto the ears and says "Allahu Akbar", the congregation following his lead. The usual niyyat for the Salat-ul-janazah is: 
Navaitu an uwaddiya lillahi ta'ala araba'a takbiraati salatiljanazati, ath-thanaau lillahi ta'ala was-salatu lirrasooli wad-du'au lihazal mayyiti (lihazihil mayyiti, in case the deceased is a female), iqtadaitu bihaz al-lmami mutawajjihan ila jihatil Ka'ba-tish-Sharifah

'I intend to offer for Allah, the Sublime, four takbirs of funeral prayer, Praise for Allah, the Sublime, and Blessings (of Allah) for the Apostle and prayer for this deceased person; I adopt the lead of this Imam, with my face turned in the direction of the honoured Ka'ba.' 

(2) The Imam and the congregation then join their hands below the navel and recite: 
Subhanak - Allahumma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa jalla thana'uka wa la ilaha ghairuka. 
(3) The Imam and the congregation then say "Allahu Akbar", (this time without raising their hands), and recite the salawat as given in (1) item of 3rd part of question (1) in the section on "Performance of Prayer"

(4) The Imam and the congregation then say "Allahu Akbar," as in (2)  and recite: 
  (a) If the deceased had attained the age of puberty, then the following Du'a:
Allahummaghfir li hayyina wa mayyatina wa shahidina wa gha'ibina wa saghirina wa kabirina wa zakarina wa unthana; Allahumma man ahyaitahu minna fa-ahyihee 'alal Islam, wa man tawaffaitahu minna fatawaffahu 'alal Iman. 

'O Allah ! Pardon our living and our dead, the present and the absent, the young and the old, the males and the females. O Allah! he (or she) to whom Thou accordest life, cause him to live in the observation of Islam, and he to whom Thou givest death, cause him to die in the state of Iman.' 

  (b) If the deceased is a minor and a boy, then the following Du'a: 
Allahummaj'alhu lana artan waj'alhu lana jran wa zukhran waj 'alhu lana shafi'an wa mushaffa'an. 

O Allah! make him our forerunner, and make him, for us, a reward and a treasure, and make him, for us, a pleader, and accept his pleading. 

  (c) If the deceased is a minor girl, then the following Du'a: 
Allahummaj'alha lana fartan waj'alha lana ajran wa zukhran waj'alha lana shafi'atan wa mushaffa'atan. 

'O Allah " make her our fore-runner, an make her, for us, a reward and a treasure, and make her, for us, a pleader and accept her pleading. 

(5) "Then the Iman and the congregation say, "Allahu Akbar" as in (3) [link to ddd]. Then turning their faces alone to the right they say: "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmatollah". Then they turn their faces (alone) to the left and say: "Assalaamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah'. 
11. The Curtailment of Obligatory Prayers. 

Q. When should one curtail the obligatory prayer ? 
A. When one is travelling with the intention of proceeding forty-eight miles or more from the home, one should offer two rak'ats of fard prayers for those which comprise four, and continue to do the same after one's arrival at a destination. If one does not intend to prolong his or her stay there for fifteen days or more.

12. Forbidden Times for Prayers 

Q. At what time is one prohibited to offer Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers ? 
A. One is forbidden to offer either Fard, Sunnat or Nafl prayers at: 

(1) The time when the Sun is rising. 
(2) The time when the Sun is at its zenith. 
(3) The time when the Sun is setting. 
Q. Are there any other times when one should not offer the Nafl prayers? 
A. Yes. One should not offer Nafl prayers during: 
(1) The interval between the offering of the Fard of Salatul-Fajr and the rising of the sun. 
(2) After the Iqamat is called for any congregational prayer at a mosque. 
(3) The time between the offering of the Fard of Salatul-'Asr and the setting of the sun. 
(4) The time between the setting of the sun and the offering of the Fard of Maghrib prayers. 
(5) The time between the Imam's getting up from his place for delivering the Khutba, i.e., the sermon, and the completion of Friday congregational prayers. 
(6) At the time of any Khutba, e.g., Friday, 'Id, etc. 
(7) The time between the Fajr prayer and the Id prayers. 
(8) After the 'Id prayers at the premises where the same have been offered. 
(9) At the time of Hajj in 'Arafat after the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers are offered together. 
(10) The time between the Maghrib and 'Isha prayers at Muzdalifa. 
(11) When there is very little time left for offering the Fards of any of the daily prayers. 
(12) When one feels the need to answer a call of nature. 
13. Salatul-jummat'a (Friday Prayers). 

Q. What is Salat-al-Jamm'a
A. It is a congregational prayer only and cannot be offered alone. Consequently, an Imam (i.e., leader) is necessary to lead the prayers. The Imam first of all delivers a Khutba in two parts consisting of praise to Allah and prayers of blessing for the Holy Prophet, and some admonition to the congregation. He then prays to Allah for the welfare of all Muslims. After that he leads two rak'ats of the Fard of Jumm'a and all other follow him, as usual in congregational prayers. 

Q. Who should be chosen to lead the prayers? 
A. The one most conversant with Islamic theology among those present should be requested to lead the prayers. 

Q. How is the congregational prayer offered? 
A. The Imam stands in front of the congregation facing the direction of the Ka'ba, and all the other worshippers stand in lines behind him and follow his lead, i.e., they stand when he stands, perform ruku when he does it, and so on.

Q. Should a person offering his prayers with a congregation repeat all the requisite recitations? 
A. Yes. One should recite everything excepting the Opening Chapter of the Holy Qur'an followed by some other passage from it which the Imam recites on behalf of the congregation. 


Q. What Prayers are offered in congregation in the daily Prayers? 
A. Only the Fard of each Prayer is offered in a congregation, and not Sunnat or Nafl. 

Q. What should one do if one misses the congregation for any Prayer (Fard)? 
A. If one misses congregation for any prayer, one should offer it alone or, if possible, join or arrange to have another congregation; but if one misses the congregation of Salat-ul-Jumu'a one should offer by oneself the usual Fard of Salat-uz-Zuhr

Next Page