(From The Elementary Teachings of Islam by His Exalted Eminence Maulana Mohammed Ahdul Aleem Siddiqui)
Part I - Iman
Part II - Islam

Chapter 1 
The Declaration of Faith (about the Prophet Muhammad p.b.u..h.)

Chapter 2
1.Wudu (Ablution)
2. Ghusl (Bath)
3 (a) Miscellaneous Notes 
4. Azan 
4. (a) Iqamat 
5. The Obligatory and Essential Factors of Prayer 
6. Performance of Prayer
7. Classification of Prayers
8. Fard Prayers 
9. Wajib-ul-witr 
10. Funeral prayers (Salat-ul-janazah)
11. The Curtailment of Obligatory Prayers
12. Forbidden Times for Prayers 
13. Friday Prayers (Salatul-jummat'a)
14.Wajibul 'Id (The 'Id Prayers). 
15. Nafl Prayers
16. Miscellaneous 

Chapter 3
Zakat (Islamic Alms-Fee)

Chapter 4
The Observation of Fasts in the Month of Ramadan

Chapter 5
Pilgrimage to Mecca 
How is the Tawaf performed?
The Performance of Hajj 
How does one perform 'Umra?



Q. What is the second Principle of Islam ? 
A. The second Principle of Islam, is to offer the obligatory prayers five times a day. 

Q. What do you understand by Prayer? 
A. Prayer is the act of worshipping Allah according to the teaching of the Holy Prophet. 

Q. What are the essential requisites for offering Prayer? 
A. The essential requisites tor offering Prayer are: 

(1) The worshipper must he a Muslim. 
(2) The worshipper's clothes and body must be free from all impurities. 
(3) The place where the Prayer is to be offered should be pure and clean. 
(4) The part of the body between the navel and the knees of a male worshipper must be fully covered, and the whole body excepting the hands and face of a female worshipper. 
(5) The worshipper must face the Ka'ba in the Great Mosque at Mecca and the direc tion of Ka'ba outside Mecca. 
(6) The worshipper must form the Niyyat (i.e., intention) in his or her mind of the particular Prayer, Fard (obligatory) or Sunnat or Nafl (optional), he or she is about to offer. 
(7) The worshipper must observe the times and rules prescribed for the respective Prayers. 
(8) The worshipper must have performed the Wudu (i.e., ablution). 
(9) The worshipper must have performed Ghusl (i.e., the washing of the whole body), if he or she was in a state of grave impurity. 
Note: In order to keep the body clean from dirt and all minor impurities and to be ever ready for prayer, a Muslim must wash the private parts of his or her body with water whenever any impure matter issues from the body. 

1.Wudu (Ablution) 

Q. What is Wudu
A. Wudu is the act of washing those parts of the body which are generally exposed. 

Q. How do you perform the Wudu
A. I perform the Wudu in the following manner: 

(1) I make myself sure that the water with which I am going to perform Wudu is pure, clean and fresh (not used before) and its colour, taste and smell are unchanged. 
(2) I form and have the full intention of performing the Wudu for offering prayer. 
(3) I recite: "Bismillahir-Ralimanir-Rahim", i.e., in the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. 
(4) I then wash my hands upto the wrists three times, passing the fingers in between each other. 
(5) I cleanse my mouuth with brush or finger, and gargle with water three times. 
(6) Then I rinse the nostrils thrice with water. 
(7) I wash the face from the forehead to the chin bone and from ear to ear three times. 
(8) I then wash the right arm followed by the left up to the elbows three times.
(9) I then brush up the whole head with wet hands, pass the wet tips of the index finger inside and the wet tips of the thumb outside the ears, and pass over the other surface of the hands over the nape and the sides of the neck. 
(10) I tnen wash the feet up to the ankles, the right foot first and then the left, taking care to wash in between the toes, each three times. 
Q. What are the obligatory acts in the performance of Wudu
A. The obligatory acts in the perfonmance of Wudu are four, viz.: 
(1) Washing the face. 
(2) Washing both the arms npto the elbows. 
(3) Brushing over a quarter of the head with wet hands. 
(4) Washing both feet up to the ankles. 
(1) If the water to be used for Wudu be stagnant, one should make sure that the cistern measures ten yards by ten yards by one foot and is full of water. 
(2) If a person wears impermeable foot-gear after the performance of the Wudu, it is not necessary to remove it for a fresh Wudu. One may just pass over it wet fingers as if one were tracing lines on it. Travellers can take advantage of this concession for three days and three nights, others for one day and one night. 

2. Ghusl (Bath) 

Q. When does ghusl become obligatory ? 
A. Ghusl becomes obligatory after: 

(1) Sexual intercourse. 
(2) Discharge or effusion of semen. 
(3) Completion of menses and confinement. 
Q. Can you name the obligatory conditions that most be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory ghusl?
A. The obligatory condition that must be fulfilled for a valid performance of an obligatory ghusl are:
(1) To rinse the mounth thoroughly, so that all the parts are cleaned properly. 
(2) To rinse the nose right up to the nasal bone. 
(3) To wash all the parts of the body thoroughly, including the hair. 
Q. What is the best way of performing an obligatory ghusl
A. The best way of performing an obligatory ghusl is: 
(1) The person should have the intention (niyyat) to cleanse the body from grave impurity at the time of performing the bath. 
(2) He or she should wash the hands up to the wrists thrice. 
(3) Then the private parts must be washed thoroughly thrice. 
(4) Filth must be removed, if there be any, from any of the parts of the body. 
(5) One should then perform an ablution. 
(6) One should lastly wash thrice all the parts of the body, including the hair thoroughly. 
Q. What should a person do in place of wudu or ghusl if one is sick or access cannot be had to water? 
A. When a person is sick or access cannot be had to water, one may perform what is called tayammum in place of wudu or ghusl.

Q. What are the essential requisites for the performance of a tayammum
A. The essential requisites for the performance of a tayammum are: 

(1) To have the intention in mind to perform the tayammum for the removal of impurities. 
(2) To strike pure earth lightly with the palms cf both the hands.
(3) To pass the palms of the hands over the face once. 
(4) To again strike lightly pure earth with the palms of both the hands and rub alternately from the tips of the fingers to the elbows, the forearms and the hands. 
3a Miscellaneous Notes 

Q. Do you know the acts or circumstances which make wudu void? 
A. Yes; the acts or circumstances which make the wudu void are: 

(1) Answering the call of nature; discharge of semen or issue of worm or sandy stone [bowel movement] or any impure matter from the front or the hind private parts. 
(2) The passage of wind from the hind private part. 
(3) The act of vomiting a mouthful of matter. 
(4) Emission of blood, puss or yellow matter from a wound, boil, pimple., etc., to such an extent that it passes the limits of the mouth of the wound, etc. 
(5) Loss of consciousness through sleep, drowsiness, etc. 
(6) Temporary insanity, fainting fit, hysteria or intoxication. 
(7) Audible laughter during prayer. 
Q. Do the same occurrences nullify tayammum also? 
A. Yes; the same occurrences nullify tayammum also, but in addition tayammum is nullified as soon as the cause for performing it is removed, i.e., if the sick person recovers, or, if recourse has been taken to it for lack of water, and access to water becomes possible. 

Q. What acts are forbidden without the performance of wudu or the tayammum as the case may be?
A. The following three acts are forbidden without the performance of wudu or tayammum as the case may be: 

(1) Prayer. 
(2) Walking round the Holy Ka'ba in Mecca. 
(3) Carrying or touching the Holy Qur'an. 
Note: Children who have not attained the age of discretion, i.e., about seven years, can carry the Holy Qur'an for the purpose of studying. 

Q. Does wudu convey any inner meaning besides the cleanliness of the body? 
A. Yes, the primary object is cleanliness or purity, but spiritual cleanliness and purity, i.e. freedom from sins which is the main object of religion. It is perferable, therefore, to recite the following after the wudu:

Allahummaj'alni minattawwabeena waj'aini minal mutatahahhireen

O Allah! make me from among those who repent for their sins and from among those who keep themselves pure. 
4. Azan 

Q. What is azan
A. Azan is the first call to Prayer. 

Q. When and why is the azan uttered? 
A. The azan is uttered in a loud voice to announce to the faithful that it is time for ther obligatory prayer and to invite them to offer the same. 

Q. How Is azan recited? 
A. Azan is recited in a loud voice by the muezzin (the crier) facing the direction of the Ka'ba in the following words which are said in the order mentioned: 

(1) Allahu Akbar
"Allah is most Great" (four times). 

(2) Ash-hada al la illaha ill-Allah
"I bear witness that there is none worthy of being worshipped except Allah." (twice). 

(3)Ash-hadu anna Mahammad-ar-rasoolallah
"I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah" (twice). 

(4) Hayya 'alas-Salah
"Come to Prayer" (turning the face alone to the right and saying it twice). 

(5) Hayya 'alal-falah 
"Come to Success" (turning the face alone to the left and saying it twice). 

(6) Allahu Akbar
"Allah Is Most Great" (twice).

(7) La ilaha ill-Allah
"There is no deity but Allah (once). 

Note: The following phrase is added after Item (5) in the azan of the early morning prayer, viz., 
(5a) "As-salatu khairum minannaum
"Prayer is better than sleep" (to be said twice). 

4. (a) Iqamat 

Q. What is Iqamat and when is it uttered? 
A. Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before the beginning of the obligatory prayer (fard). It is similar to Azan but with the addition of the sentence, "Qad qamatis-salah
i.e., "prayer has indeed begun", to be uttered twice after item (5) above. 

5. The Obligatory and Essential Factors of Prayer
Q. What are the obligatory (fard) factors in prayer? 
A. The obligatory factors in a prayer are seven in number: 

(1) To say takbir-i-tahrimah. 
(2) Qiyam, i.e., standing erect and placing the right hand upon the left below the navel. 
(3) To recite some verses from the Holy Qur'an. 
(4) Ruku, i.e., bowing down in such a way as to grasp the knees with the hands keeping the back in a straight line so as to form a right angle with the legs. 
(5) Sajdah, i.e., prostrating in such a way that both the palms of the hands, the forehead, the nasal bone, the knees and the toes of both feet touch the ground; there must be sufficient space between the arms and the chest and the legs and the belly so that they do not touch each other but remain separate. 
(6) Qa'dah, i.e., sitting down in a reverential posture, keeping the right foot erect on the toes and the left one in a reclining position under the rumps. 
(7) To signify the completion of prayer by word or action. 
Q. Can you name some of the essentials (wajib) of prayer? 
A. The observance of the following points are very essential in any prayer. 
(1) To say takbir-i-tahrima, viz., "Allahu Akbar." 
(2) To recite the opening chapter of the Holy Qur'an (the Fatiha). 
(3) To recite any of the other chapters or at least three consecutive verses of the Holy Qur'an. 
(4) The recitation of the opening chapter must precede the recitation of any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the Holy Qur'an. 
(5) To avoid a pause between the recitation of the opening chapter and any other chapter or three consecutive verses of the Holy Qiir'an. 
(6) To assume all the postures correctly, i.e., undignified haste must not be practised in changing the postures and reasonable pauses must be observed at each stage. 

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