This is an edited transcription of excerpts from the audio
tapes of the course Shaykh Hamza gave based on his translation of Shaykh
Muhammad Maulud's Matharatul Qulub: The Alchemy of the Heart. This class
took place in Hayward, California in 1999.
Part 2: Introduction
and the Disease of Miserliness
is due to the One who has clarified what is needed to purify the heart
and adorn it.
Shaykh Muhammad Maulud says in this poem, "Fa qultu badian bi qalbi
al-bada'," and this line has two meanings. The first, more literal
meaning is "I begin with the heart of beginnings." The word "al-bada',"
has to do with "beginning," and the word "qalb" has two meanings:
"heart" and "to turn over." Thus, this is a play on words, and so the author
is also saying, "I am beginning by flipping the beginning over." If you
flip over the word "bada'" (beginning), you get "adab" (courtesy).
Hence, the author says he begins with adab because courtesy is the
highest and noblest of beginnings, and Muslims should have adab
and peace be upon Muhammad and his family as long as he is the means by
which it is achieved and grant him safety.
lights of the pearls of tasawwuf in relation to other lights
is like the pearl in relation to the oyster shell.
like the ninety-nine lines written in gold next to the one line
written in ink.
said this, the condition of people, in this time of preoccupation
and movement, seem to seek from me
a book about the rectification of the hearts. Suddenly, I find a down-pouring
of the bounty of Allah.
responded by bringing forth a clarifying poem that fulfils the most
important needs. It
draws the distant close even for one of slow comprehension, and with it
the illiterate becomes literate
Courtesy with Allah
began by starting with the heart of beginnings [which is courtesy
this is the highest and noblest of beginnings.
have courtesy with Allah, the High, the Majestic by practising incessantly
modesty and humility,
out of shame, humbled, imploring Him.
The word "adab" has many meanings in Arabic. A person who is
erudite is called "adib," because, generally, with learning comes
manners. Thus, the root meaning of the word "adab" is related to
"courtesy." In addition, a mu’addib is a teacher of children, and
the word literally means "the one who is causing somebody to have adab."
An educator of children is someone who teaches the students how to behave
properly, and proper behaviour is at the heart of this science. Thus, the
shaykh emphasizes the extreme importance of having proper adab with
Allah and of behaving properly with Him before anyone else.
Shame and Humility
We show adab to Allah in two ways: one, by expressing haya
and the other, by having dhul. The root-word of "haya" is
related to life. "Hay" means "living," and "hayat" means
"life" itself. According to a famous Hadith, "Every religion has a quality
that is characteristic of that religion, and the characteristic of my religion
is haya." Haya is important not only in Muslim culture but
in many other cultures as well, such as the Filipino culture. "Hayah,"
meaning shame in Tagalog, is significant to the Christian Filipinos as
well as for many other northern Filipinos. (This is from the Muslim influence
because the Muslims had a strong and lasting influence on the Filipinos
before the Spanish arrived there).
Although this is no longer the case, there was once a time when if you
had grown up in this culture, you most probably would have heard the phrase
"shame on you" as a child. In modern American culture however, "shame"
has become a bad word. We are told that shaming a child is a bad thing
to do because it will harm the child's self-esteem. Therefore, everything
a child does is okay, and we must make him feel good about himself, no
matter what he does. If he just slit his brother's throat, they say, "well,
he has had a trying childhood, so we have to make allowances for him."
This is an extreme this culture has reached.
Anthropologists have divided traditional cultures into shame and guilt
cultures where guilt is an inward mechanism, and shame is an outward mechanism.
The word "guilt" comes from a German word that has to do with debt. When
indebted, you feel an obligation to the person to whom you are indebted.
The idea with guilt is that if you have done something wrong, there is
an internal mechanism that caused you to feel guilty about your actions
and thus you want to relieve that guilt by rectifying your wrongdoing.
Most primitive cultures are not guilt-based cultures but shame-based.
For them, the reason why you refrain from doing something wrong is because
you loathe being shamed by other people and do not desire others to say
such things as, "how could you?" "how dare you!" or "shame on you!" Furthermore,
you do not want to bring shame upon your family, your tribe, and the like
due to your own actions. While this culture has almost entirely lost and
even dishonours this concept, Islam not only honours the idea of feeling
shame for your wrong actions, it takes it to another level by instructing
you to have shame before Allah and the unseen world. Thus, you recognize
that even if people cannot see you, Allah and the angels always see you,
so you have shame before Him and the angels. Hence, Muslims have a shame-based
culture; however, that shame transcends the cultural sense of feeling shame
towards one's elders or towards one's parents and takes it to another level
which has an interior mechanism that is not akin to guilt.
"Haya" is having shame before Allah, and the author of this poem
says that is part of having proper adab with Allah. Thus, if you
want to have correct behaviour (adab) with Allah, then have a sense
that Allah is always watching you so that you feel shameful to do something
that is displeasing to Him. This is similar to the way most healthy people
do not desire to act in a manner that displeases their parents because
their parents are the means by which they came into existence. Their parents
supported them; the mother cleaned the child when he was young and spent
nights awake for him. By having this shame with his parents, the child
In addition to haya, Shaykh Muhammad Maulud says to have dhul.
A dhalil person is someone who is lowly, abject, and humble. Although
this is a negative quality when displayed towards others, it is a noble
quality when shown toward Allah. The Qur'an mentions that people who incur
the anger of Allah get dhul thrust upon them. The shaykh advises
being dhalil before Allah alone. Allahu is someone such as
a slave who is afraid to do anything in the presence of his master; there
is a type of humility before God contained in this idea.
Thus, according to the shaykh, a person with adab is one who
possesses haya and dhul. Furthermore, he says that not only
should you feel this haya and dhul, but you should also feel
dejected out of shame before Allah. That is, you should feel you are munkasir,
broken. You become broken in the presence of Allah when you recognize that
you are bringing to Him nothing but yourself and your wrong actions. When
you seriously ponder upon all that Allah has given you and then reflect
over what you have given to Him in return, you really feel this breaking
(inkisar) out of shame; you become humbled before Allah in awe,
and you realize you can only implore Him to change your state.
The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam is reported to have said
"none of you truly believes until his desires are in accordance with the
very thing that I brought." Muru'ah (virtuous merit) is what the
Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam brought, and that is what Allah
wants from us. Thus, the shaykh says that adab with Allah is to
give up your designs for what Allah desires for you to be emptied of desire,
having no tam'a. Tam'a is greed, avarice, desire, wanting
something out of situations, and having ulterior motives behind your actions.
one who desires to know what he may gain out of all situations, asking
himself, "what's in it for me?" According to the shaykh, we must rid ourselves
of this attitude. We should desire nothing from the servants of Allah;
rather, all of our desires should be sought from Allah because He is the
One who possesses everything.
up your desires for His, emptied of desire for what His servants have,
hastening to fulfil His commands, fearful of the subtle fault of bad manners.
Furthermore, the shaykh says that you should be quick to fulfil Allah's
commands and constantly be aware of the hidden fault of having bad adab
with Him. The subtlety of bad adab is illustrated by the hadith,
"A man amongst you will say a word giving it no consideration at all, and
it will drag him 70 seasons in the hell fire." Thus, as this hadith demonstrates,
if you do not learn the commands of Allah, you will not know when you are
breaking them. For example, if you do not know what is a stop sign, you
just pass right through it, unaware of having done something wrong. The
problem is that accidents tend to occur when people, whether knowingly
or unknowingly, do not follow the rules. Similarly, when we breach adab
with Allah, bad things happen: we bring harm upon ourselves, and this should
be a serious fear of ours.
Once, a Mauritanian shaykh and I saw a mouse coming out of its hole,
and we noticed that every time the mouse heard a sound, it would stop and
shoot back into the hole. "That's taqwa," the shaykh explained.
is worrying about being eaten alive by your own mistakes. Having this kind
of fear of Allah ultimately turns into love, and that is the highest maqam
(spiritual station). We do not fear Allah because we think Allah is horrible
— the contrary is true: Allah is the Merciful, the Compassionate, the Forgiving.
However, at the same time, we wish not to incur the wrath of Allah because
Allah does have wrath. Similarly, our parents will sometimes do painful
things to us out of love, and often, we are not aware of the reason.
Servitude to Allah
Shaykh Muhammad Maulud then explains that if you realize the qualities
of haya (shame), dhul (humility), and faqar (poverty)
in yourself and empty yourself of all of their opposites, such as shameless
behaviour and arrogance, then you will gain dignity and wealth from Allah.
Thus, by realizing your 'ubudia (servitude) to Allah, you truly
you realize your attributes of servitude, you are assisted with
the attributes of the Independent One. Realize your abjectness and impoverishment,
and you will gain dignity and wealth from the All-Powerful.
Freedom is gained because in completing your servitude to Allah, you
are no longer a slave to yourself, and such a person is in actuality the
only free human being. If you cannot control yourself, you are a slave
to yourself. Someone may claim to be free, but when the food shows up,
he cannot resist and stop himself. Such behaviour does not indicate freedom
as far as Muslims are concerned. Another person may also claim freedom,
but when an opportunity to have an illicit relation emerges, he cannot
control himself, even if he is the president of the United States. One
former president of the United States of America was a Rhodes scholar who
went to Cambridge and received the highest level of education, yet he was
a slave to the lowest aspects of himself. He is unable to control himself.
Such a person is not free; he is 'abd al-hawa, a slave of his passions.
On the contrary, when such a situation arises for a person who is 'abd
Allah, he has taqwa of Allah. Thus, even though the temptation
might be there, as it is natural for human beings to have shahwa
(desire), he can control it because he is not an ‘abd (slave) to
his desire; rather, he is a sayyid (master) of it. If one has desire
for one's spouse, then the shahwa is mubah (permissible).
However, if the desire is for someone with whom such a relationship would
be illicit, then the 'abd Allah does not even consider it, and such
a person is a truly free person. The same applies to any other shahwa
because the 'abd Allah is not a slave to any of his desires. They
serve him, and he does not serve them.
The stronger your taqwa is, the more control you have over your
desires. According to Imam al-Ghazzali, the stomach and the genitals are
the two most dominant desires, and if you can control these two, then the
other ones become easy. In addition, the desire of using the tongue is
something that also causes people trouble. There are people who cannot
stop backbiting no matter how much they are admonished to stop. I have
seen this occur a great deal. In fact, I once pointed out to a person that
he was saying something wrong, and in less than three or four minutes,
he began to say the same thing and was not even aware of what he was doing.
This inability to control the tongue is a major problem for most of us.
We speak badly about others, complain, and say other things that we should
not be saying. Learning to control the tongue is an important matter.
Another problem with human beings is that we perceive these qualities
that the shaykh mentions, of being impoverished and being humble, as abject
qualities. We do not wish to be poor, yet the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi
wa sallam chose poverty over wealth. He had no money or jewelry in
his house; he slept on the ground on a "bed" made of leather and palm fibres;
he had only two pillows in his room for his guests to sit upon. He lived
in total poverty. In this culture, if people lived like that, they would
most likely be in a state of total humiliation and degradation, being concerned
about what other people think, not about what is best for them. On the
contrary, the shaykh says that if you realize your true state of 'ubudia
to Allah, you will have dignity with Allah; that is, you will be mu'azaz
Allah no matter what your living conditions are in this world.
In Surat Yasin, we are told about the two people who came to
warn the town's people of Allah's punishment, yet the town's people threatened
them in return. Then Allah says, "'Azazna bithalithin: We
gave them ‘iza with a third." Allah gives 'iza to whomever
He wants. He says, "Ya'izu man yasha'u wa yudhilu man yasha'u. Tu'izu
man tasha'u wa tadhilu man tasha'u: You give iza to whomever
You want, and You humble whomever You want." Amazingly, there are people
in the world today who are out on the streets begging while their ancestors
were people who used to rule the world. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala
can do so to any people He wants.
A secret of creation is that if you realize the true attribute in yourself
before Allah, Allah gives you its opposite. For example, if you realize
humility before Allah, Allah will make you 'aziz before other people,
giving you dignity because of your realization of your true state of humility
with Him. If you are arrogant with Allah, He may let it go for a while,
but when He takes you to account, He completely humbles you before everyone.
This is a big secret that the shaykh gives us in this poem.
The Tongue: the Heart's Articulator
Here, the shaykh reminds us that there is no salvation like the salvation
of the heart because every limb answers to the heart. Thus, if your heart
is saved, your limbs are saved whereas if your heart is not saved, your
limbs are not saved. In relation to this, a hadith says, "the heart lies
under the tongue" which means that the tongue is the interpreter of the
heart as it tells you what is in the heart. A munafiq (hypocrite)
is wretched for this very reason: he says with his tongue what is not in
his heart. This is in opposition to the purpose of the creation of the
tongue as the tongue was created to express what is in the heart. Thus,
the hypocrite is in fact oppressing his tongue as well as his heart.
there is no salvation like the heart's salvation as all the limbs respond
to its desires.
A hadith warns us that the tongue is what takes people to the hell fire.
If the heart is rectified, then the tongue becomes sound as the tongue
is the heart's articulator. For this reason, Allah says, "Ya ayuhallathina
amanuttaqu Allah wa qulu qawlan sadida. Yuslih lakum a'amalakum
Allah tells you to be upright in the way you speak because when the tongue
serves to translate what is in the heart, this is an indication that the
heart is upright. Thus, if your tongue is upright, this means that your
heart is upright. According to a hadith, all the limbs shake every morning
when they wake up in the spiritual world and say to the tongue, "Itaqi
Allah fina ini istakamta istakmina wa ini'wajajta i'wajajna: fear Allah
with us because if you are straight, we are all straight, and if you go
crooked, we are all crooked." Thus, the significance of the tongue is clear
from this hadith, and therefore a good deal of spiritual work should be
performed upon the tongue, such as practising much dhikr (remembrance)
of Allah. We should replace empty chatter with remembrance of Allah, using
the tongue for what it was created for, and not wasting time with it. The
tongue is second in its importance only to the heart and is connected strongly
to the heart.
Stages to Allah
According to the shaykh, the beginning foundation of this science is realizing
what adab is and that the whole point of existence in this world
is to have adab with Allah and with His creation. That is, you were
created simply to have adab with Allah and to have adab with
the creation of Allah. According to a hadith, the Qur'an is called, "madabatu
Allah: the place you learn adab with Allah" because the
Qur'an was revealed to teach us adab.
you have a firm grasp of this foundation, then a mastery of the heart's
infirmities is the second stage.
The shaykh says that after you have a firm grasp of this foundational
understanding of adab, then a mastery of the heart’s infirmities
is the second stage. Your ultimate goal, the highest station, is to be
with Allah, and you cannot reach the higher maqamat (spiritual stations)
without having mastered the primary stations. You want to raise yourself
in degrees, and you cannot get to the level you wish to reach without going
up the stages (darajat). Allah says that He raises people in degrees.
The first degree is recognizing that you want adab, and then you
have to recognize that what is preventing you from getting it is a diseased
The Obligation of a Pure Heart
Knowledge of the diseases of the heart, what causes them, and how to remove
them is an obligation incumbent upon every human being: it is a binding
obligation on every adult Muslim. According to the scholars of Islam, you
must have some knowledge of the diseases in order to be able to free yourself
from them. This ruling is based on the Quranic verse: "Qad aflaha man
zakaha wa qad khaba man dasaha: the one who nurtures his soul is the
one who has success, and the one who stunts its growth is destroyed"(91:9-10).
Thus, the Qur'an is talking about tazkiya of the nafs. Allah
also says, "Yawma la yanfa'u malun wa la banuna illa man ata Allaha
bi qalban salim: on that day, neither wealth nor children will benefit,
only the one who comes to Allah with a pure heart" (26:88-89). Thus, according
to the Qur'an, the only people saved on the Day of Judgement are people
with qulub salima (sound hearts). "Salim" (sound) is related
to the word "aslama" because "Islam" is moving towards that state
of the heart's ailments, what causes all of them, and those things that
remove them is an obligation incumbent upon every responsible individual.
The Inherent Nature of Man: Good or Evil?
In agreement with Imam al-Ghazzali's ruling, the shaykh states that purification
of the heart is an obligation upon every individual. Imam al-Ghazzali is
really the master of this science, and this poem is an abridgement of al-Ghazzali's
fourth volume of the Ihya, the section on munjiat wal muhlikat.
Not only is al-Ghazzali radi Allahu 'anhu a master of this science,
is also the mujadid (reviver of Islam) of the fifth century according
to the consensus of the ‘ulama who came after him. Al-Ghazzali considers
knowledge of the diseases of the heart fard 'ayn, incumbent upon
every individual Muslim, because he considers the diseases of the heart
to be instinctual, something that is inherent to the human condition and
part of the Adamic nature (gharaiz). Some other scholars disagree:
they maintain that while these diseases are predominant in man, nevertheless,
there are some people who are born with a completely pure heart having
none of the diseases, and therefore knowledge of this science is not obligatory
upon those people.
is the ruling of Imam al-Ghazzali. This ruling does not apply to
one who was granted a sound heart according to scholars other than al-Ghazzali.
reckoned the heart's illnesses inherently part of a human being. Other
scholars deemed them predominant in man but not necessarily qualities inherent
to his nature.
For example, there are altruistic children who have no problem with
sharing: they are not greedy about toys. Although this is not the norm,
they do exist. Some hearts, for some reason and whatever secret, do not
suffer from diseases of the heart, but most do. Children manifest diseases
such as greed, avarice, and hatred. Little children will say, "I hate you."
They have learned the concept of hate, and at that brief moment of uttering
those words, hatred is what they feel. Thus, these diseases begin to show
up even in children, and we believe that all children are born into fitra
(a natural, inherent state). Hence, if these diseases are in fact inherent,
do Muslims then believe in the Christian concept of original sin, that
people are corrupt by nature?
The difference between the Muslims and Christians on this issue is that
according to the Muslims, there is an inclination to these diseases that
is instinctual. Muslims do not believe in any way that this inclination
is a result of the wrong action of Adam 'alayhi salaam because we
do not believe that Prophet Adam 'alayhis salaam did anything
to bring the wrath of Allah upon himself; we do not believe that he fell
from Grace. Such ideas are Christian. According to the Qur'an, Adam 'alayhis
salaam is a prophet who made tawbah to Allah, and Allah accepted
his tawbah, and therefore, he has no blemish. His offspring do not
suffer because of anything he did.
What, then, do we mean by the fact that there is an instinctual inclination
that manifests in the erring of human beings? This relates to the black
area of the heart. The heart is a spiritual organ, and inside the heart,
there is a black dot, a seed that has the potential of spreading like cancer
and overwhelming the heart. For example, although most people are unaware
of this, many people in the world have tuberculosis. They have a bacillus
in their lungs, but it is dormant. If they were in a situation where they
began to get ill or starve and their immune system shut down, then the
tuberculosis would emerge. Similarly, there is a dormant element in the
human heart that, if nurtured, will destroy the human being. For this reason,
a hadith says that if the son of Adam does something wrong, a black
spot appears on his heart. If a person makes tawbah, the black spot
gets erased, but if he does not, the black spot continues to grow until
the whole heart becomes pitch black. This is when one loses his humanity.
We often refer to this as hard-heartedness.
This idea of the heart's ability to become corrupt, lose its light,
and turn black is found in many cultures. For example, a Hausa man in Africa
once explained to me that Hausas refer to someone who has a really bad
heart with a word which meant "black-hearted." Hausas are dark skinned
people, and there is no racist connotation attached to this phrase. "Black"
and "white" are used similarly in the Qur'an. Allah says, "Their faces
become bright, and their faces become black." This "white" does not refer
to white skin but refers to light. There is a light, and the absence of
that light is darkness. For this reason, a black person can have light
in his face while a white person can have a completely dark face and vice
versa. We are speaking here about spiritual entities and not about skin
While knowledge of the diseases and their removal is obligatory, keep in
mind that to remove these diseases until nothing is left is not in the
human capacity. The Qur'an says, "Wa man yuka shuha nafsihi fa ulayka
humulmuflihun: the one who has protection from the evil of his soul
is from the people of success." Allah does not say "the one who removes
that shuh (evil) or the one the shuh is removed from." Rather,
Allah says, "the one who is protected from it." This is similar to that
bacillus sitting in the lungs: if you are protected from it, it never becomes
tuberculosis; it only remains dormant.
that complete obliteration of these diseases until there is no trace is
simply not in the capacity of human beings.
According to a hadith, every child is born on fitra. Many Muslims
think this hadith means that every child is born a Muslim. However, the
hadith does not say that. The Qur'an refers to Islam as "din al-fitra,"
so Islam is fitra, and this means that we are naturally inclined
to Islam. "Fitra" is the inherent nature that human beings incline
towards naturally, and what the human being is naturally inclined to is
goodness. When human beings are raised and nurtured correctly, they usually
incline towards the truth. However, they also have the susceptibility to
Obviously, there are various factors that affect the fitra state;
one of them is legitimacy. According to the sharia', there is no
fault on the child, but there is an effect that illegitimacy has in the
unseen realm, and this is confirmed by several hadiths. Thus, it is important
for people to choose righteous mates before having children. If there were
no reality to the parents, there would be no meaning to choosing righteous
people as mates.
When choosing a husband, a woman should look for his taqwa, and
when choosing a wife, a man should look for her din. One of the
said, "Don't marry your daughter except to a taqy (a man of taqwa)
because if he loves her, he will show her ihsan
if he doesn't like her, he will not oppress her." When marrying, you should
think of future generations and want your children to be raised properly.
The parents are important, and the effects they have on a child are extraordinary,
so you want parents who have taqwa and din.
The shaykh says he is going to give us the definitions of the diseases
of the heart from their root, explaining how the diseases are caused and
how to cure them. He begins with bukhl, not because it is the worst
disease but because he is going in alphabetical order.
as it may, here I am giving you what you need to know of their definitions,
their etiology, and their cures.
The Diseases and their Cures
A bakhil is a miser. Bukhlun is miserliness. According to
the shaykh, the refusal to give what is necessary either by sacred law
or by virtuous merit is at the essence of miserliness. Thus, there are
two aspects to bukhl, one that relates to the sacred law (shari'a)
and the other to muru’ah (virtuous merit). Muru’ah is an
important concept in Arabic, and it comes from the word for "man." Its
meaning has connotations of chivalry, manhood, and virtue.
begin with, the refusal to give what is necessary either by sacred
law or by virtuous merit is the essence of miserliness that is mentioned
diseases of the heart].
An example of the first aspect of bukhl that is related to shari'a
is failure to give zakat. If you are not giving zakat, you
are bakhil by shari'a, and that bukhl is haram
(forbidden). The same is true for a man who is not giving support (nafaqat)
for his wife and children because men are maintainers and caretakers of
women and children. If a man gets divorced, he must pay child support because
that is a shari'a right of the mother of his children. Similarly,
the shari'a demands that you fulfil the rights of other people and
spend on others where the need exists if you have been given the capacity
to do so. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala says, "In their wealth there's
a haq (right) to the beggar and to the one who doesn't have money
so his needs are taken care of." The miser is the one who does not take
care of people even though he is able to do so. These examples are related
for the necessities of sacred law, they are such things at zakat,
support of one's dependants, and similar rights due to others, such as
relieving one in distress.
Not being bakhil by standards of muru’ah (virtuous merit)
has to do with not constricting people or making matters difficult for
them. The shaykh's example of this is not giving people a hard time over
some paltry, insignificant, trivial matter. For instance, if someone owes
you ten dollars, and you give him a hard time over it even though you have
plenty of money and have no need for it, then you are considered bakhil
by the standards of muru’ah, not by shari'a. You have a right
to that money by shari'a, but by muru'ah, such an attitude
is despicable. The shaykh points out that refraining from such an attitude
is even more important when dealing with a neighbour or a relative.
of meritorious character are not giving people a hard time over
some paltry matter or abandoning nitpicking over trivialities.
such things is even more important for a neighbour, a relative, or a wealthy
person or when hosting guests or concerning something in which such behaviour
is simply inappropriate, such as purchasing a shroud. The same is true
for one buying a sacrificial animal or purchasing something one wants to
donate to the needy.
Furthermore, it is even worse to lack virtuous merit if you are wealthy
because a wealthy person should have a type of magnanimity, a generosity
that allows one to say, "don't worry about it" to others. According to
a hadith, there was a wealthy man who had no good actions to his record
except that he used to say to his servant when he went to collect money,
"If they don't have it, tell them they don't have to worry about it." On
the Day of Judgement, Allah says to the angels, "this man was forgiving
of people's transgressions against him, and I am more worthy of forgiving
transgressions." Thus, Allah says, "if he is going to forgive people for
the debts that were owed to him, then I'll forgive him for the debts he
owes Me." Having this kind of muru'ah is not insignificant: wealthy
people are encouraged to let go of debts they really do not need paid off.
If the wealthy see the indebted are having a hard time, they should just
say "Bismillah. Don't worry about it;" such an attitude is encouraged
by the shari'a also.
Similarly, if you are hosting a guest, and your guest spills something
on the carpet, you should not say, "Can't you watch yourself a little bit?
That's a brand new carpet I have;" saying such a thing is not showing muru'ah.
On the contrary, you should try to keep them from feeling bad, saying such
things as, "Don't worry about it. I love tea on my carpet. In fact, I heard
a proverb that says, 'The best thing for a carpet is spilt tea.'" Obviously,
this proverb makes the guest feel good when he spills tea. The point is
that you do not show more concern for you carpet than for your guest.
The shaykh also gives the example of buying a funeral shroud. Haggling
over the price is inappropriate because the funeral shroud should remind
you of death, and you should put things into perspective, forgetting about
the ephemeral world. The same advice applies to buying a sacrificial animal.
Since you are sacrificing an animal for Allah, you should want to get a
good animal and not say, "No, no; that’s too much." In addition, when purchasing
something you wish to donate to needy people, you should desire to get
something that is good and not cheap or else bukhl is exhibited
in that act. Similarly, trying to get a bargain for something you are going
to give as sadaqah for the sake of Allah is bukhl.
E.J. Cullen wrote a brilliant short story about a rummage sale for the
church, "How Some People Feel about Jesus." In it, Cullen pointed out that
people cared so much about the church that they were going to sell their
worst junk to support it with their rummage sales. Muslims may learn from
this important idea: it is shocking that some Muslim mosques are also having
these rummage sales. You should give the masjid the best things you have,
not the worst things or the garbage you wish to get rid of.
If you owe someone, such as your neighbour, a right and go to fulfil that
right to him but are unpleasant with him in doing so, then that is inappropriate.
Furthermore, the shaykh says that by being unpleasant, you have torn away
the veils of your dignity and of your muru’ah, and this is according
to the "majestic and wise guides" who are the ‘ulama. Thus, someone
who fulfils his obligations without good cheer falls into this category,
such as a man who frowningly or proudly says, "Here's your zakat"
to the receiver. The proper way to give zakat is to actually put
your hand down, allowing the recipients to take it with their hands above
yours. You should give it to them with a smiling face feeling honoured
to pay your zakat. Indeed, the recipients of your zakat truly
are honouring you by helping you to fulfil the haq of Allah.
one who makes matters difficult for one whose rights make it clearly
inappropriate to do so has indeed torn away the veils of dignity. This
is as the majestic and wise guides have stated.
same goes for one who fulfils his obligations without good cheer
or spending from the least of what he possesses.
Thus, by the standards of both shari'a as well as muru'ah,
is considered low in Islam as karam (generosity) is one of the highest
qualities of our Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. In fact,
it could be said that his karam follows immediately after his rahmah
(mercy). "Inna akramakum ‘inda Allah atqakum: indeed, the most karim
of you in the sight of Allah is he who has the most taqwa" (49:13).
The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam was the most atqa
(person with taqwa) of us, so he was the most generous, the noblest.
"Karim" means generous and noble, so the Arabs view generosity as
nobility. Allah is al-Karim, the Generous. Therefore, it is important
to recognize that doing just what the shari'a states is not enough:
you should go above and beyond that by showing generosity to Allah subhanahu
The origin of this disease is love of dunya (this ephemeral world).
You are bakhil because you love the stuff with which you are bakhil.
If you did not love it, then giving it up would be easy: you would just
say "bismillah" and give it up. However, when you love something,
you want to hold on to it. In Mexican culture, they say kudah, meaning
he has no hand to give out; he got cut off at the elbow; he is cheap. Similarly,
another word for bakhil is mumsik. "Mumsik" means
"constipated"; the idea is that the mumsik is unable to let go of
what is actually of beneficial to let go. Thus, if you do not give out
from your wealth, it will poison and kill you. You must let it go. For
this reason, imsak is miserliness.
root is love of this world for its own sake or just so the self
can acquire some of its fleeting pleasures.
Furthermore, the root word for pure gold ('ikyan) is 'iky
is the meconium stool of an infant. Thus, gold is related to feces. In
a hadith in the musnad of Imam Ahmad, the Prophet sallallahu
'alayhi wa sallam said, "Allah has made what comes out of the son of
Adam a metaphor for the dunya." Ultimately, the dunya is
like that: it is beautiful while it lasts, but in the end, it is what it
The height of dunya is gold, and the desire to hold on to it
is like someone who cannot let go of his waste matter. Zakat is
considered the waste matter of your wealth; it purifies your wealth. For
this reason, bani Hashim, the family of the Prophet sallallahu
'alayhi wa sallam cannot take zakat. It is the filth of your
wealth because everyone who earns money will always have doubtful (shubahat)
or prohibited matters (muharramat) in their wealth acquisition:
there are always doubtful matters concerning financial transactions, and
by giving zakat, you are purifying your wealth. Similarly, when
you eat food, there is benefit and harm in your food. Hopefully, the body
absorbs the benefit and removes the harm. The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi
wa sallam said a du'ah after coming out of the bathroom: "Praise
be to the One who has provided me with its delight [the taste of the food]
and retained in me its benefit [its strength, the energy derived from food]
and removed from me its harm." The idea here is much like the idea behind
with it, Allah allows you to remove what is harmful from your wealth. When
the bakhil holds on to his wealth, it harms him in the end.
According to Imam Ali, the worst person is the bakhil because
in dunya, he is mahrum (deprived), and in akhira,
he is mu'adhab (punished). In dunya, he does not even benefit
from his wealth. There are several hidden millionaires in America who live
middle class lives and have millions of dollars in the bank. These millionaires
do not want to spend their money because they want to save it. Such is
the nature of a bakhil: he does not benefit from his wealth in the
and then, in the akhira, he is punished for hoarding it. Once, the
Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam asked who was the sayyid
a certain tribe. The tribe's people replied, Jad ibn Qays "illa nastbakhilahu:
except he's a little bit of a miser" to which the Prophet
'alayhi wa sallam replied, "he cannot be your sayyid" because
the sayyid cannot be a miser. He then asked rhetorically, "Is there
any disease you know that is worse than miserliness?" The point is that
one cannot be a sayyid and a bakhil at the same time.
Hence, the origin of this disease is either love of dunya for
its own sake, simply because it is dunya, or because the self wants
some benefit from the dunya. However, ibn Hazam would probably say
that one of the benefits that the self is trying to secure by hoarding
wealth is to alleviate the fear of poverty. The fact that the bakhil
has millions in the bank makes him feel good even though he is not benefiting
from it. This feeling is assuaging his hala' (anxiety). The amazing
thing is that such people never feel good because they are always worried
about such things as the stock index, NASDAQ. They pace up and down when
the prices are falling, exclaiming, "Oh look at that! What's going to happen?
I am only worth six billion now; I was worth 12 billion." There is such
a man, and he is 70 years old; even if he set out to spend one million
dollars every day for the rest of his life, he would be unable to finish
the amount of money he has. Bukhl is a deep disease; ultimately,
it is a type of worshiping of money. How wretched is the servant of the
and the dirham, "trusting in the almighty dollar," as they say.
One day, when the stock market crashes, it is gone; and it may be sooner
than when we think.
Bukhl's cure is realizing that those who achieved dunya did
so by exhausting themselves over a long period of time. Thus, ask yourself
how bad you want dunya. If you want it really bad, you have to work
for it, and working for it means working day and night while life passes
you by. Many people spend a tremendous amount of time at work; they never
have time for their families because of dunya. They possess that
"I have to keep working and making more and more" mentality. It becomes
an obsession. Actual life passes them by, and the experiences of life are
lost. People are obsessively searching for wealth and security, and in
the end, their lives are over. The shaykh is telling us to look at those
people and how they exhausted themselves chasing after the dunya.
The Cure to Bukhl
it by realizing that those who indeed have achieved it [dunya]
did so only by exhausting themselves over long periods of time. By doing
so, they finally did accumulate the very things they were seeking.
Just as they are beginning to get everything they want, suddenly, without
their permission, death assails them. Dodi and Diana are good examples
of that. People in England were devastated by Diana’s death. They thought,
"No, no! She can't die." Her life was the life people wanted: fame, beauty,
lineage, and wealth. She "had it all" as the saying goes. She was right
at the prime of her life, only 38 years old. Death is not invited in; it
comes without invitation. It simply arrives when it is time to go, and
it takes the person. All those wealthy people have to die too.
just as they are approaching the heights of its splendour, suddenly,
without their permission, death assails them.
Nobody likes a miser. Even misers
do not like each other.
it also by recognizing]
the disdain shown to
misers and the hatred people have for them even amongst themselves.
The disease of hub al dunya (love of the ephemeral world)
is treated as you treat bukhl. The two diseases are related as we
have already seen.
the same treatment, treat the one whose heart's ailment is love